Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Since over 50% of foetuses survive when born at 24 weeks, the current Dissertation
Since over 50% of foetuses survive when born at 24 weeks, the current truth on miscarriage should be amended to reflect this - Dissertation congresswo human racea common impartiality country itself has adopted in most of the states. When some other EU countries gift only 12 weeks and less, U.K. also can also follow suit. The Abortion Act 1967 is the oldest Abortion law in the world now and therefore needs to be amended for less than 24 weeks. shelve of contents Chapter No Particulars Page no Abstract 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 1.2 caper statement 6 1.3 Aim 6 1.4 Objectives 6 1.5 Dissertation structure and Methodology 6 1.6 de preconditionination 7 Chapter 2 Literature review 7 2.1 Defense of necessity 7 2.2 Rights of unborn shaver 10 2.3 Ethics of abortion 12 2.4 General law applicable to abortion 13 2.5 Prolife movement 15 2.6 Prochoice movement 15 2.7 U.S. law for 20 weeks or lesser 16 2.8 British M.P. Nadine Dorries 20 reasons for 20 weeks 17 2.9 24 reasons for 24 weeks by Laurie Penny 17 2.10 Conclusion 16 Chapter 4 Data Findings, discussion and conclusion 19 Bibliography 22 Chapter 1 Introduction The big question is whether abortion is killing of foetus or removal of a piece of tissue from a womans body? It is argued that Abortion Act 1967 is medicalisation of deviance. According to Friedson, power accorded to doctors to have control over abortion has light-emitting diode to problematic segments of social behaviour. Thus, the judge decides what legality is and who is guilty, the priest, what is holy and who is profane and the doctors, what is normal and who is sick. In order to chastise the problematic area of abortion, medical profession have managed to influence the decision on when abortion is reprehensible and when it is therapeutic. The influence by the medical men has been on two levels. one, the political level where they supported jurisprudence on abortion from 1803 to 1861 that helped establishment of medical professions status and i n 1967 in progression of professional interests with the passing of Abortions Act 1967. The second level is the practical level in which the medical man exerts his extensive autonomy to decide on an abortion if it could be therapeutic 1 Section 58 of the Offenses Against the Person Act 1861 provides every woman being with child, who, with intent to procure her miscarriage, shall unlawfully administer to herself all(prenominal) poison or noxious thing or shall unlawfully use any instrument or other means whatsoever with the like intent, and whosoever, with intent to procure miscarriage of any woman, whether she be or not with child, shall unlawfully administer to her or cause to be taken by her any poison or other noxious thing, or shall unlawfully use any instrument or other means whatsoever with the like intent , shall be guilty of felony and being convicted thereof shall be liable(predicate) at the discretion of the court or kept in penal servitude for life or for any term no t less than three years or to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding three years with or without hard labour and with or without solitary labor movement2 Though it may appear from what has been stated above that abortion in the U.K. is technically at a lower place the control of medical profession, liberal approach is the norm in that it is now abortion on engage given the fact that U.K. is the highest among European countries with reported cases of abortion 90 percent of which is conducted in the first trimester (12 weeks). The U.K. law has been more permissive than other countries
Monday, April 29, 2019
Demonstrative Communication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Demonstrative Communication - Essay Example sign- row(a) dialogue constitutes a significant portion of everyday communication. Despite the fact that thousands of languages exist across the world, batch do not absolutely rely on words to convey their ideas to each other. Demonstrative communication can be referred to as the process of exchanging information between the sender and the receiver through signed means. It happens outside the boundaries of verbal form of communication (Sonneborn, 2012). Demonstrative communication entails expression of feelings and messages in an organised manner. It is an powerful way through which people understand and express their feelings or ideas to others. Demonstrative communication is made up of body physiology as well as nonverbal.Body communication involves space and appearance. Space can be essential in delivering information. For example, while talking to someone and he tries to move closer to you or touch you, by retreating or taking a few steps backward is a show that you do not want the person to come closer to you or to have any body contact with him or her. Moving back will show the other party that he or she is occupying your space. Similarly, appearance plays a significant role in conveying information from the sender to the receiver. The mode of dressing, hairstyle, or even musical composition application will send certain signals that convey particular information about an individual.The body language of individuals is perhaps the most understood form of demonstrative communication.
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Threats and Methods to Secure a VoIP Network Essay
Threats and Methods to Secure a VoIP Network - Essay ExamplePeople were by and large concerned with its cost, functionality and dependableness. Today, VoIP is growing to the point where companies of almost any size in any indus experiment roll in the hay how to take advantage of the cost savings and other emerging added features in VoIP. As VOIP is gaining wide adoption and becoming iodine of the mainstream communication technologies, security has become a major issue. Network Administrators are purpose themselves in a tough position of providing their clienteles with the security and reliability that they have grown accustomed to everyplace these years.The threats to security and privacy could be in the form of DOS (denial of service), malformed messages, sniffing, spoofing, vishing, VOIP spam and SPIT (spam everyplace VOIP). The vulnerable components under threat done the use of VoIP could be access device application, management interface, network, tftp server. content t o secure the VOIP network could be VoIP Protocol, Session Border Protocol, or using the network devices.To protect networks from these threats, one of the key aspects is the methodology of securing information that is, to conceal the signals and media in real time communications from unauthorized entities through cryptography. But there is no single solution to secure a VOIP service network just the best practice is to integrate all possible solutions according to service model, network architecture, protocol model, come out customers, peering partners and so on.With increasing use of this technology combined with modern technology and its users, VoIP faces many security issues that convey to be covered and prevented in order to make this technology as one of the best for the companies. thence this dissertation will examine some security concerns and protection methods by analyzing the threats to VoIP network and consequently forge how to deal with them from design, quality of service and management perspectives.1.2 Introduction As with IT security, there are a the great unwashed of threats to a VoIP network that can make it difficult to secure VoIP telephony. DoS attacks, message tampering, proxy impersonation, adjustment hijacking are but a few of the problems telephony managers may encounter as they try to secure VoIP networks. The security of private data, whether in organizations or industries, is becoming more crucial and relevant to each one day. VOIP technology also needs to continually improve and update its security defenses in terms of reliability and quality. As internet telephony comes to handle more data, it becomes an easy target for cyber crime. From the beginning of its inception, VOIP infrastructure has ceaselessly been vulnerable to threats from other networked architectures. This happens due to the process of digitization, and encryption of voice, which is then compressed into small packets and sent over the Internet Protocol netwo rk systems. This technicality is presented in the VOIP system which can
Saturday, April 27, 2019
The United States Patriot Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words
The United States Patriot Act - Essay ExampleThe PATRIOT Act was enacted to protect US citizens by augmenting the tools by which law enforcement agencies fight crime and improves communication capabilities between these government agencies. In antagonism of the prevailing majority opinion, the PATRIOT Act protects, rather than degrades, civil liberties.The name of the act, the USA PATRIOT Act, is a shortened acronym for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism. check to the Justice Department, the PATRIOT Act gives support to and encourages enhanced sharing of information among various law enforcement agencies at the local, state and federal levels. In addition, this law assists law enforcement in their efforts to connect the dots from a wider scope of agencies when tack together evidence so as to develop a complete picture regarding possible threats from terrorists. By enabling more fluid communications between the various agencies, information regarding a particular suspect give the axe be matched up faster, often automatically by computer database, and more accurately identified. This assists in change magnitude the safety of citizens both by removing dangerous suspects from the general population before they are able to causation serious trouble and by ensuring innocent citizens are cleared and released in a timely and effectual manner if or when mistakes are made.Communications is the focus of the other major element of the act as well. The Act allows law enforcement officials more latitude when attempting to intercept transmissions of suspected terrorists discussions via electronic surveillance (Ward, 2002). This is non a blanket license for law enforcement to listen to anyones line based upon a simple whim or roll of the dice, but is instead intended to help investigators trace suspicious souls through their more intimate and therefore
Friday, April 26, 2019
Global Management and Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words
Global Management and Leadership - Essay standardThere are various functional departments such as finance, operations, Human Resources, Wholesale, Direct Sales, Information Technology, Marketing, Merchandise, Property, Sales, fork up Chain and Design. The heads of all these departments report to the CEO. The CEO along with other directors forms the board of directors which takes crucial organizational decisions. such an organizational structure suits a company like pumpkin Patch whose lines of business are preferably few. This organizational structure enables appropriate designation of responsibilities (Organizational Chart pumpkin vine place, 2010). pumpkin vine patch has been following an obstreperous growth strategy which is not constrained by geographical boundaries. The company has retail stores in 4 countries as well as wholesale association in 16 countries. 80% of companys r fifty-fiftyues come from outside New Zealand. The company is listed on the New Zealand stock e xchange and has more than cc stores worldwide. It has strong financial statements and cash flows. A large part of the companys sales comes by dint of online sales. This indicates its adaptability to modern technologies, tastes and lifestyles. 2. Weaknesses As Pumpkin Patch grows, relying on a simple organizational structure as present could be risky. There would be a need to include structural components based on geography and lines of business. For example, there could be geographical heads for 4 prime geographical regions the company caters to (Organizational Chart Pumpkin patch, 2010). Pumpkin Patchs turnover is still a fraction of the pass off retailers in linked States and has a long way to go in spite of its recent scalability. 3. Opportunities Pumpkin Patch has a number of opportunities in all 3 gets of sales it uses i.e. Retail, Wholesale and Direct (Internet). In retail segment, the company has been relying solely on margins rather than volumes. Pumpkin Patch needs to s cale up even faster to gain a signifi skunkt market share in the crowded U.S. market. For this, the company can make use of franchise model. In the wholesale segment, the company needs to have strategic collaborations with top multi-brand retail chains such as Spencers and Wal-mart. Internet market is the best opportunity Pumpkin Patch can make use of. This is a relatively new sales channel and Pumpkin already has a significant presence there. It has not been exploited to its potential by competitors. This should be tempered as a priority. The aim should be to generate at least half of the sales from this channel in coming years (Pumpkin patch Limited, 2007). 4. Threats Pumpkin has a significant mind space among the customers. However, U.S. childrens clothing market is highly crowded. There are well known reputed brands such as Gap, Next, Mango, Zara, Billabong, Gymboore and others (Pumpkin patch Limited, 2007). Scaling up in wake of this intense competition would be a difficult la bor and involve marketing and infrastructure spends. With huge store opening costs, the company may not be able to realize economies of scale with small stores. References Organizational Chart Pumpkin patch. (2010). Retrieved online January 18, 2012 from Pumpkin patch Limited. (2007). Macquarie Securities data Related Information from PART 2 Relevance of Core Competencies Core competency is the unique capacitance of a firm that cannot be easily imitated and provides it a unique competitive edge. Core competencies
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Clinical assessment for Paramedics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words
clinical assessment for Paramedics - Essay ExampleIt is normally non-server and can last between 30 minutes to some(prenominal) days. This type is linked to things want stress, dehydration, poor posture or skipping a meal. Tension botheration in truth causes nausea and vomiting and may not interfere with the activities of daily living. Migraine headache is a little tense headache. Usually felt as throbbing pain at the front side of the head. caboodle headache occurs in clusters for a month or two at the same time of the year. compact headache is the most server type with the descried as having a burning sensation or a piercing/ throbbing quality. The pain is usually located behind one eye or in the region of the eye without changing sides (Gladstone & Dodick, 2004, pp. 304314). Mixed headache is also called transformed migraine. This is a combination of strain and migraine headache and is experienced by both adults and children.Inferring to grimace 1, the patient is sufferin g from a accent headache with the pain rated at 5/10. The patient presents with the headache following stressful episodes and the pain feels like a tight band around the head make the type of headache in case one fit the diagnosis of a tension headache. Ordinary painkillers such as paracetamol and ibuprofen, lifestyle changes and hydration atomic number 18 important for its management. Despite the headache being, non-severe the patient will be followed up after discharged, as the headache may be a symptom of an underlying condition. In the process of discharging the patient, neurological test would be necessary to rule out diseases that might cause the headache like multiple sclerosis, epilepsy cerebrovascular diseases. moral status examination (MSE) would be done to assess the orientation of the patient to person, place and time as an indication of fitness of his/her neurological status (Loder et al., 2008, pp. 88-92).Gladstone, J.P. & Dodick, D.W., 2004. Revised 2004 Internation al Classification of
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
EMBA 560 discussion 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words
EMBA 560 discussion 5 - Essay ExampleSo I searched in the internet for blogs to see how common people define it. The simplest description I got is that that of So (2008), who broke down accredited leadership into three components self-aw beness, develop and pr cloakice solid values, and lead with the heart. I was struck with this description because it was both simple and true. Self-aw arness is important because most people do not hear when they are pretending, mostly to meet other peoples expectations. Solid values are essential because they are the springboard of all our thoughts and actions. Most importantly, leading with the heart (grounded in solid values and the someones true aspirations) connects with other people, such as the leaders followers, in a guidance that engages people to people and elicits a greater commitment to the common goal. So I agree with the direction that a pretentious leader cannot yield sustainable success. An authentic leader delivers a message fro m the heart, and is and then also able to elicit a response from the heart. When the will is engaged in this way, there is a long-term commitment to sustained action, and therefore sustainable success. Messages delivered by inauthentic leaders fail to convince, are begrudgingly followed, and are soon forgotten, so success can only be short-term. Reference So, TTC. (18 July 2008) Authentic leading Authenticity Matters. Positive Psychology News Daily. Available at http//positivepsychologynews.com/news/timothy-so/20080718860 Accessed 24 April 2013 2. In your view, what makes an executive authentic? So (2008) described an authentic leader as having self-knowledge and solid values, and leading from the heart. Of all definitions of authentic leadership, this is probably the simplest, the easiest to comprehend, and the most complete. It includes intellectual awareness of oneself, moral grounding, and emotional candor. Of these three components, however, only one is important of the ess ence of authenticity. It cannot be self-awareness, which is a relative thing and can never be perfected, nor could anybody be incontestable that he/she is fully aware of the breadth and depth of his/herself. In fact, we evolve over time as persons, so our awareness of ourselves at any one time is already outdated. Also, how our self-knowledge is always subjective. Like Johari window (Darden, 2003) what we know about ourselves is only one quadrant. There are also those attributes known only to others, and those unknown to anyone. Then there is the development of solid values. Unfortunately, by the time we are advanced to the point of cosmos leaders, we already have a firm set of values, whether they are good or bad, because valued are developed in childhood and adolescence. So there is not much an adult can do about his/her values but to recognize them. However, no matter their early upbringing or the take aim of their self-awareness, could always conduct their actions from the heart. Acting according to ones convictions is entirely within the control of anyone at anytime all one needs is the will to do it. This is the core of being an authentic executive, having the will to act and lead from the heart. References Darden, K (2003) Assessments Understanding Ourselves Better Career Life Institute. Available at http//www.careerlife.net/coaching/assessments/ Accessed 25 April 2013 So, TTC. (18 July 2008)
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Relationship between one's principles,the investigation of truth and Essay
Relationship between ones principles,the investigation of truth and how to lead ones vivification - Essay ExampleThe person would then conduct his life according to the principles discussed and the truth he finds out. The ternion atomic number 18 clearly related to each other as while living a person should be following those principles and he would be required to know the truth too. Socrates had been imprisoned due to speechmaking out his mind and was scheduled to be put to death. All because he had been investigating truth and verbalise what he thought was right. He was not given the freedom of speech. However, when Crito asked him to escape and get away from the injustice, he did not agree and felt that he should follow the common principles of those times he thought that the rules are for everyone and should be for him too. In Antigone we see a similar situation. Sophocles says Gods law is greater than that of gentlemans gentleman and he did that in order for the populatio n to be safe from moral destruction (Johansen 96). Another etymon is that of civil disobedience when Creon and Antigone have differing viewpoints. While Creon feels that the law should be followed whatever it is, Antigone feels that the state law is not absolute, and that the law of gods is much greater and more to be followed. In fact, his view is that the state law hindquarters be broken if need be to follow the law of gods. That is, he clearly prefers gods law over the state law which is made by mortals.
Monday, April 22, 2019
Article Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1
Article - Essay ExampleThe bind begins its focus on the nature of the universe and the relation between the supernatural and the scientific world in the context of G-ds humankind. Despite the fact that they are affiliated with different religions, the four authors mentioned in the article believe that the existence of G-d is merely a subject of conversation. It shows that they believe G-d does not exist in this world of science. On march on note with respect to the article, it was bumped that, some conceive G-d is a creature like human beings while others think G-d to be fictional. Moreover, few believe that, the existence of G-d would have been abolished if language had not been invented.Furthermore, the article reflects about history, which tends to reveal the atrocities committed by the theists against the atheists. Correspondingly, this article has provided valuable schooling with regard to the existence of G-d. Based on information from the article, the existence of G-d is viewed as a system of symbols and purpose by many people. Furthermore, this particular article has revealed that the views of the authors uphold the same despite the fact that they belong to different religions and systems of faith.The article has also reviewed various motives and objections of people regarding unionized religion and the existence of G-d. There prevail various dominant ideologies or the perception about the matter of the debate conducted. The ideologies are the similar belief or thinking of a group of people in the same society. The subject of this paper is quite similar to the meaning of the term ideology. The main focal diaphragm of the article is atheism which is a non belief or rejection in the survival of G-d or deities. In the article two of the authors i.e., Anthony Lowenstein and Jane Caro are atheists and are providing their views with regard
Accountability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words
Accountability - Essay ExampleThey some(prenominal) set a level of standards for their subjects which they are required to conform and abide by in the function administration. The two organizations monitor and regulate different subjects. The APSA regulates individuals who are involved in political science these overwhelm students, teachers and professors (The American Political Science Association, n.d). The New York adduce Public Officers Law Code of Ethics sets a frame work for officers and employees (Public Officers Law, n.d). The difference in the subjects and nature of professional discipline room that different principles need to be applied in either case.Though the two codes share quasi(prenominal) goals in their implementation of principles, they have a different jurisdiction as the New York code is throttle to the state public officers whereas APSA can even protect non American scholars. Hence, the difference in this aspect is the discretion of coverage offered by t he two codes.The two codes have different approaches in implementing and prescribing public administrators accountability. The New York State Public Officers Law Code of Ethics regulates behavior through a punishment process whereby trouble to abide by a certain code results in a form of punishment or penalty. The APSA however, is more authoritative and guiding and has fewer elements of threat or negative
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Introduction to Microeconomics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words
Introduction to Microeconomics - Essay Example turn off 3 shows the trend in fossil oil supply. Generally, oil supply shows an increasing trend just alike price and carry, albeit at a slower pace. Supply grew by only 13.38 during the period. It should alike be historied that dips in oil prices are matched by corresponding shrinks in the total supply. Oil supply besides dropped during 1998, 2001, and 2002.The law of demand states that All else equal, as price go, the quantity of demanded rises, as price rises, the quantity demanded falls (McConnel and Brue 2002, pp. 41). This declares that there is an inverse or negative relationship between price and demand. Tables 1 and 2 supra shows the generally increasing trend in oil prices as well as oil demand which clearly violate the law of demand. In a situation where the oil price is rising, we must have a bun in the oven that the quantity demanded to fall as it discourages the purchases of high priced commodities. However, the mou nting demand notwithstanding the rise in prices rear be explained by the factors which are exogenous or are outside the price-demand model.During the past years, there has been a boom in the automobile sedulousness due to the increased purchases of cars and other transportation systems. The airline industry is also showing slight recovery with the proliferation of low cost carriers and the strong activity in the tourism sector. This trends and developments in the global market become the key drivers of oil demand. As the nation and the world as a whole, are becoming more and more industrialized, we also became more dependent on oil to fuel our technologically more advanced equipments. Nowadays, the importance of the oil industry ignore never be overstated. International demand for oil has also been increasing in order to support the growing economies of the potential giants like China (Some factors 2005). Insufficiency in this resource will surely facilitate the spillover of neg ative externalities in the entire economy. Oil has become a necessity. Higher prices have not strongly hindered customers from purchasing their often needed fuel to facilitate the efficiency of their everyday activities.On the other hand, the law of supply can be stated as follows As price rises, the quantity supplied rises, as price falls, the quantity supplied also falls (McConnel and Brue 2002, pp.47). This gives price and quantity supplied a positive or direct relationship. Tables 1 and 3 shows that some(prenominal) oil price and quantity supplied is generally in a upward trend with corresponding dips in 1998, 2001, and 2002. This shows a close positive relationship between the two variables as well as the reactivity of quantity supplied to oil prices.The empirical evidence shows that the oil industry follows the law of supply. The oil industry has been adjusting to the higher global demand by increasing its production. Oil companies have been very keen in victorious the opp ortunity of producing higher oil quantity in order to accommodate the expected mount in global demand. Although economies of scale must have
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Fundamentals of Hypothesis Designing and Testing Essay
Fundamentals of Hypothesis Designing and Testing - Essay sheathDefinition A statistical hypothesis is an assertion regarding the distribution of a variable or variables. If a statistical hypothesis completely specifies the distribution, it is referred to as a simple hypothesis if not, it is referred to as a obscure hypothesis (Goodman, 1999).The testing of a statistical hypothesis is the application of an explicit set of rules for deciding whether to live with the hypothesis or to reject it (Hinkelmann & Kempthorne, 2008). The method of conducting any statistical hypothesis testing can be outlined in six stepsThe alternative hypothesis, which we denote by H1, expresses the idea of some difference. substitute(a) hypotheses may be one or two sided (Kaye & Freedman, 2011). Usually, the setting of the problem determines the alternative even forward the data has been collected. lawsuit II error Reject H1 whilst factual the chance of making a showcase II error is symbolized by 3. Th e objective in all hypothesis testing is to set the Type I error level, also known as the significance level, at a low equal value, and then to use a test statistic which minimizes the Type II error level for a attached sample size. As we fix the Type I error level, it is best to devise the test in a way that the Type I error is most serious, in terms of cost (Lehmann & Romano, 2005).A critical P -value is the probability that is set by the person doing the test it is the threshold for the P-value that the tester leave behind use to decide whether the sample is unusual enough, compared to the hypothesized population, to indicate that the empty hypothesis should be turned spate in favor of the other option (McCloskey & Stephen, 2008).The calculated test statistic is compared to the sampling distribution that the statistic would have if the null hypothesis was factual. The comparison is summarized into a probability called a P-value this is the probability, if the null hypothesis is factual, that the statistic would be at
Friday, April 19, 2019
Databases Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
Databases - Assignment ExampleThe pitcher statistics ar strikeouts, walks, saves, innings, pitched, earned runs, wins and losses.An entity is in the first normal form if it concurs no repeating sets of data. Similarly the above attributes contain several repeating attributes. Walks for example are found within the pitcher and the hitter. This wastes a lot of office in the data base. To normalize the ERD into INF we eliminate the redundant data.In 2NF we further normalize the diagram and intromit foreign keys. These foreign keys are items that are used as primary key in separate attributes. The away squadID for example was used in 1NF as the primary key for the Awayteam. It is therefore introduced into the game attribute as a foreign keyWhen we develop the 3NF we ensure that there is no redundancy. The relationship between fake and batting is nonpareil to many. This means that a player can play for only one team at a time. The relationship between a team and a player is many to one meaning that many players can batt.Marston, T. (2004, September 30). The Relational Data Model, Normalisation and effective Database Design. Retrieved February 27, 2015, from Tony Marston
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Childhood obesity Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words
puerility obesity - Research Paper ExampleThe obesity trends is rising day by day, and all that does ascend from the imbalance in the caloric content consumption. The trend has had detrimental effect to the children, exposing them to cardiovascular diseases, endurecer and diabetes. The prove will expound childhood obesity with relation to classification, causes, effects and preventive measures.Obesity is determined by use of BMI in children who are two geezerhood or older. The center for disease control and saloon has come up with the acceptable body mass index from that that needs medical attention. A BMI of 18 to 24 is classified as a standard body mass index with 25 to 29 being overweight. Obesity sets in when ones weight and height ratio goes beyond 30. On the other hand, a BMI of less than 18 is classified as underweight as well (Anderson and Butcher). However, the coupled States preventive problem force confirmed that high BMI can identify a health problem but does non mean that all children need to lose weight.The prevalenceof obesity inchildhoodis increasing in the world with the current estimates being in 42 million cases of overweight children (International Obesity Taskforce). According to (Force), the fare of obese children has doubled from the ones in 1980 in all countries of North America that include Mexico, the United States, and Canada. tear down though there is a decreased rate of childhood obesity development in the United States, the prevalence still remains high at 32.8 percent among children of age 6 to 11 years old, and 18 percent of the children with the age brackets of 6 to 9 years old (UniMelb Obesity Consortium).A numberless of factors often act in combination hence leading to the development of obesity among children. The mixture of elements that can result in the development of obese are termed as obesogenic in medical terms. One of the great risks of the child developing obesity is a situation whereby the parents to are suffering from the same condition. This can
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALTSIS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1
FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALTSIS - Essay Example air division 2 provides a comparative analysis of the impact of IFRS adoption on financial reporting theatrical role and capital market). Section 3 evaluates the consequences and overall impact of adoption of the IFRS in EU and Section 4 is concluding part of the essay.Accounting look is an important aspect of financial reporting as this reading serves as a strategic source for stakeholders and influences their decisions. With the adoption of the IFRS the rules and norms of financial reporting consent been changed and modified, causing dissimilar opinions among various groups of stakeholders (Lopes, Cerqueira, and Brandao, 2010). It is widely debated whether the adoption of the IFRS has improved the quality of financial reporting among the EU firms (Lopes, Cerqueira, and Brandao, 2010). Thus, for example, several researchers have analysed the impact of IFRS adoption and the change in cash flows and net income, and concluded that the c ompanies applying IAS have more assess relevance of earnings, less earnings management and more timely loss recognition between the stream before and after adoption of IFRS (Barth et al 2008 Christensen, Lee & Walker, 2008). These researchers believe that reliance of the IFRS leads to higher accounting quality, however, exactly in case of the firms are incentivised to be transparent and to adopt IFRS (Lopes, Cerqueira, and Brandao, 2010). According to Christensen, Lee & Walker (2008), the firms, which were forced to adopt the IFRS, did not show improvements in accounting quality.Some researchers have identified some potential problems associated with the IFRS adoption and financial reporting quality. One of the concerns related to IFRS adoption and its impact on the accounting quality is associated with risk of different interpretations of IFRS (Lopes, Cerqueira, and Brandao, 2010). Researchers determined some of the following areas for possible variations in interpretation int angible
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
Schizophrenia affects Essay Example for Free
schizophrenia affects EssaySchizophrenia affects approximately 2.5 million Ameri do-nothings and more than 24 million battalion worldwide (Janssen). Schizophrenia is a header affection that is very difficult to conk out with. Schizophrenia has strong hereditary component (Smith, Segal). People with dementia praecox hear voices, lose touch with reality, cant think clearly, function, see things or hear things that are not re totallyy in that respect, and cant distinguish what is real and what is unreal(Smith, Segal). Having this disorder could affect the relationship they go with another(prenominal)s and even love ones. To students who are non-aware of this disorder should know that this could happen to anyone. The early signs of schizophrenia comes without anyone being warned. You might have known individual your tout ensemble life and in a blink of an eye it could happen suddenly.Most cases of schizophrenia appear in the late teens or early adulthood. However, schizop hrenia can appear for the first time in essence age or even later (Smith, Segal). The disorder is common in men than it is in women. The close common early signs of schizophrenia are insomnia, oversleeping, strange use of words, for fallful, depression, flat gaze, inappropriate laugh or cry, and abandonment at work or school (Smith, Segal). . There are so many other different signs of schizophrenia. Sometimes sight with schizophrenia tend to think wad are out to get them, or people are poisoning them through their food. Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized expression are all symptoms of schizophrenia. There are three major types of this disorder paranoid schizophrenia, disorganized schizophrenia, and catatonic schizophrenia.Schizophrenia affects relationships because people with schizophrenia often get paranoid and suspicious of friends and their family. Drugs and alcohol play a big kick downstairs in schizophrenia people because they often use drug s and drink to self- medicate themselves. Most of the time people with schizophrenia tend to think they are better and they do not think they need their medical specialty no longer, so they stop taking their medicine. When they stoptaking their medicine they usually relapse covering into the delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized behavior.Being diagnosed with schizophrenia is a long process. Doctors do an evaluation and ask questions pertaining to family report and the symptoms he or she is having. The doctors then will do a physical examination and see if anything could have caused this problem. The doctors usually will order a CAT scan or MRI to examine the brain for further explanations of the problems. Sometimes when doctors are diagnosing schizophrenia they usually hold them in a behavior floor in the hospital. Methodist Unity Point in Peoria, Illinois has a behavior floor for people with disorders. They watch for symptoms and evaluate their patient s so they can diagnose them with the right diagnostics. Being diagnosed with schizophrenia could be devastating, exactly they can live a wonderful life. If people noticed a change in a loved one, make sure to seek medical attention.The faster people get treatment for schizophrenia they have a higher chance to improve their recovery. If you were to have schizophrenia it would not be your dent that you have it. No one is really sure why people get this disorder alone there is no one to blame. It is actually easier for a person to cope with the idea of cancer than it is to scan the odd behavior, hallucinations or strange ideas of a person with schizophrenia (Grohol). People who are close to someone with schizophrenia often are affected by their symptoms. They may see things that arent really there or hear things telling them to say thing or do things they really dont mean. Just know its not their fault and show as much love and go for for them. People tend to be over-whelmed and t heir relationship with a person with a schizophrenia disorder at long last falls apart. Do not feel discourage or frightened there is hope for your loved one.REFERENCESCannon, Tyrone. Cures for Schizophrenia IMHRO. Cures for Schizophrenia IMHRO (One Mind Institute). N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2014. Grohol, John M. All just about Schizophrenia and Psychosis. All About Schizophrenia and Psychosis. N.p., 2 Sept. 2013. Web. 19 Sept. 2013.Pharmaceuticals, Janssen. About Schizophrenia Causes Prevalence of Schizophrenia. Causes Prevalence of Schizophrenia. N.p., 1 Aug. 2013. Web. 19 Sept. 2013.Schizophreniaand Psychosis. All About Schizophrenia and Psychosis. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2014.Smith, Melinda, and Jeanne Segal. Schizophrenia Signs, Types Causes. Schizophrenia Signs, Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Effects. N.p., July 2013. Web. 17 Sept. 2013.
Organising a Discursive Essay about Car Use Essay Example for Free
Organising a Discursive Essay nearly Car Use Essay
Monday, April 15, 2019
Abc-Clio - Continental System Essay Example for Free
Abc-Clio Continental governing body EssayContinental SystemOne of Europes most storied leaders, nap I is remembered for his dramatic victories as the leader of France, conquering large swathes of Europe until his ultimate downfall following the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. despite his warfare machine prowess, Napoleon was never competent to conquer the fall in abilitydom, his archrival to the north. As Europes most successful stintingal power and the nation with the most strong navy in the world, Britain relied on its trade with foreign nations to provide its own economy. In an effort to undermine his rival, Napoleon initiated the Continental System, a wide-ranging system of tariffs and embargoes against Britain. The Continental System ultimately had a far much negative impact on France, however, much to the wound of its illustrious emperor.Origins of the Continental SystemHostilities between France and Britain had boiled for m either centuries, but the french Revol ution, with its antimonarchical republican set and extreme violence, initiated a hot low in relations between those two nations. Fearful of republican ideology spreading to its shores, Britain was staunchly opposed to the cut Revolution from its inception, and as the french Army began its achievement of Europe, the island nation sought allies in its fight down against France.By 1799, Napoleon had used the support of the phalanx to overthrow the French Directory and effectively take full control of the nation the French coup dtat of 1799 established the French Consulate as the new government of France, with Napoleon assuming the ultimate administrator position of first consul. Meanwhile, French armies successfully conquered the Papal States, Sardinia-Piedmont, and Switzerland, and even occupied Ottoman Egypt for three years.such(prenominal) conservative forces on the European continent as Austria and Russia shared Britains fears and quaked at the thought of French invasion. T hey knew that the French would not only rent occupying armies to their lands, but also displace their monarchies and establish republics, and that was something the ruling elite could not accept. With a successful general like Napoleon now at the helm of the government, the issue appeared more urgent than ever before.To counteract the threat of French invasion, monarchies across Europe banded together in a series of coalitions. In 1798, Austria, Britain, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, and Russia formed the Second Coalition, but their infighting prevented any effective concerted movement to stop the French war machine. By 1805, France had firmly established itself as an imperial power, having gained control over large portions of the Continent. In response, Britain and Russia, later joined by Austria and Sweden, formed the one-third Coalition. This was a crucial move for the British Napoleon had begun to amass troops in Boulogneon the northerly coast of Francein 1803 in preparation for invading Britain. The powerful British Royal Navy was able to prevent French invasion through a blockade, however, and with the decisive British naval victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805, Napoleon realized he would not be able to prepare a successful land invasion of Britain.A New StrategyDefeated, but not demoralized, Napoleon plotted a new way to brush up the British. If he could not take them on militarily, the French emperor (Napoleon had proclaimed himself emperor of the First French Empire in May 1804) determined to attack their economy. Calling the British a nation of shopkeepers in a derogatory tone, Napoleon nevertheless knew that the industrial Revolution, along with the riches flooding into the country from the burgeoning British Empire, had made the United Kingdom the most powerful economic power in the world.Because the nation was an island, it needed trade of its finished goods to buy enough keen materials and supp lies for its population to live at a level that made it possible for them to be consumers and continue their speedily expanding industrial output. He also knew that industrialization had ravaged the rural population of Britain, as well as its artisan crafts and cottage industries. As a consequence, he believed that a massive embargo of British goods passim the European continent would destroy the British economy and incite a popular uprising that would bring down the government, as deprivation among the poor had done in France in the 1780s.Meanwhile, despite the loss of the French Navy at Trafalgar, the French Army (renamed the Grande Arme in 1805) continued its domination of Europe. By the fall of 1806, nearly all of the Continent, from the Atlantic Coast to the borders of Russia, was either under French control, occupation, or confederative to France. The only exceptions, most notably Portugal and Sweden, were otiose to effectively take on French military faculty and stood wai ting to see when they too might fall under French rule. With his power seemingly uncontested in Europe, Napoleon determined that it was time to strike at the British with his new strategy of economic embargo.Economic Warfare BeginsOn November 21, 1806, Napoleon issued the Berlin Decree, which declared that France would henceforth blockade all British ships and disclaim them entry into any port under French control. In December 1807, Napoleon issued the Milan Decree as well, which stated that any ships coming into French waters that had previously docked in British ports would be confiscated, along with their cargo and crews, by French officials. That new policy was meant to include such neutral nations as the United States, which at that time was Britains most important trading partner U.S. cotton in particular was innate for fueling the textile industry, Britains most important manufacturing base at the time.To counteract Napoleons moves, the British passed their own laws, cogni ze as the Orders in Council of 1807, forbidding their trading partners from dealing with France. As a consequence, the United States was forced to wind up all trade with both Britain and France, a move passed into law by the Embargo Act of 1807. The U.S. detachment from international trade caused substantive problems in the British economy and forced British industrialists to look elsewhere for cotton and another(prenominal) raw materials that had previously come from America. The expansion of the second wave of British colonization in the 19th century traces its origins to that period, as does the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom.Effects of the Continental SystemNapoleons attempts at economic warfare were shocking at first, but they did not fully cripple the British economy. Russia was not under French control in 1806, so in the beginning point of the blockade, goods from Britain were still able to enter Europe through Russian-controlled Baltic por ts. By July 1807, however, France and Russia concluded peace with the conformity of Tilsit, and Russiaalong with Prussiajoined the Continental System as a term of the treaty. By 1808, the value of British exports had fallen from 40.8 million to 35 million, and there was a visible decline in the import of grain.Moreover, industrialists, unable to get raw materials from abroad, began to lay off their industrial workers. At the same time, there were many play failures in Britain, leading to extreme hunger for many of the poor who, without jobs or sufficient hours and pay, were unable to buckle under higher prices for rarer staples. Food riots resulted, but Napoleons hopes for a popular uprising that would overthrow the government never materialized. though deeply affected, Britains economy was able to survive the blockade in the end, largely thanks to trade with its colonies and a marked growth in smuggling.While the consequences of the Continental System were dire for the United Kin gdom, historians are adamant that the system actually had a far more punishing impact on France. Europeans, both in France and in its conquered and allied territories, were bitter that the system was denying them access to many of the consumer goods they relied on that originated from Britain and its colonies, like sugar, coffee, inexpensive textiles, and tobacco.Meanwhile, smugglers thrived in the environment of the embargo, and such goods that did get into Europe from Britain were far more expensive than they had ever been. Moreover, European nations conquered by the French resented the partner laws of the Continental System, which privileged French goods by placing high tariffs on other European goods. Prices throughout Europe skyrocketed under the Continental System, giving Europeans living under French rule new reasons to resent their imperial overlords. That resentment ultimately shook the foundations of support for Napoleons empire.Resentment, War, and DefeatThe economic har dships wrought by the embargo led European nations that had not fallen under French rule to resist the Continental System. Portugal entirely refused to take part, forcing Napoleon to invade the nation and attempt to capture its fleet and depose its monarchy. However, King John VI of Portugal fled his home for Brazil, Portugals largest colony, and his naval fleet went with him. His people responded by revolting against the French invasion, and the British sent an expeditionary force to support them. This was the preliminary phase of the Peninsular War, a brutal struggle for independence from the French for Portugal and Spain, most famous in the United States today for its astonishing and heartbreaking war images captured by the master painter Francisco de Goya. The war was extremely costly for the French and play a significant role in Napoleons eventual downfall.The Swedish also decided to reject Napoleons demand that they join the Continental System, an act that resulted in that nat ion being invaded by Russia in 1808. The war that ensuedknown today as the Russo-Swedish War of 18081809raged from February 1808 until September 1809 and resulted in Finland being separated from Sweden and established as a semiautonomous entity closely level(p) to the Russian government. Also, the Russians forced the Swedes to join the Continental System, and all Swedish ports were closed to British shipping. Like other parts of Europe living under the Continental System, the Swedes were furious at the results of the embargo, namely higher prices and scarcity of goods. Anti-French sentiment increased, and Sweden subsequently took part in the final campaigns to overthrow Napoleons empire in 18131815.As prices skyrocketed, Napoleons Continental System was increasingly resented in France as well. Moreover, the human and financial costs of the wars in which the system played a causative rolelike the Peninsular Warwore on the French public. Napoleons popularity began to plummet, and by 1 812, the economy of all of Europe was collapsing. In that year, Russia decided to stop participating in the Continental System, and Napoleon responded by launching a massive land invasion of the vast country.Ill prepared for the elusive play employed by the Russian Army and the harsh nature of the Russian winter, Napoleon suffered the worst military defeat of his career during the Russian invasion the human carnage was devastating for both sides, and Napoleons Grande Arme was practically decimated. The resentful nations of Europe, including former allies of France, seized the opportunity and rose up in unison against Napoleons change regime. Within three years, the emperors fate would be sealed with his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, the final produce that his Continental System was, in the end, a failure.Continental System. World History The recent Era. ABC-CLIO, 2011. Web. 3 Mar. 2011. lollyWorld History The Modern Era, s.v. Continental System, accessed March 3, 2011. http //worldhistory.abc-clio.com/. APAContinental System. (2011). In World History The Modern Era. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http//worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
Saturday, April 13, 2019
The 3 stages of memory Essay Example for Free
The 3 portrays of retention EssaySensory Memory is the earliest stage of memory. Information from our surroundings is stored for a short period of condemnation for auditory nurture.Short-Term Memory is information that we argon aware of or information that we conceive about. Most of the information that is stored in our short-term memory for a longer period of clock time than the Sensory Memory.Long-Term Memory has information that is largely removed of our awareness and screwing be called into our working memory to be used when pauperismed. Some information laughingstock easily be recalled while other information cannot.Knowing how our memory works can economic aid us learn better by writing down our thoughts so that we dont forget them. For instance, during my down time at work, I may decide to work on a discussion question and can easily get distracted by questions from my teammates or writing out an email. It would be to my advantage to import down what Im thinki ng at the moment and refer to it when I need it.From the study that I read taken in the text on page 212. It stated that I was mainly and honorable face of learner. I can see where they can get this as a results for the study and I do agree that I do some of my learning from hearing what is being said about a parturiency that I am doing, But I would arrest to say that I do not really agree with the study. I complete that I am a visual learner, I do my best work If I have some genius to show me what types of topics that need to be through for a certain task. If I had to go along with the study because I do think that perchance half of my task skills come from listening to a task. I think that I would use it at all clock. I know when I am working I would use this memory sort to work with the patients that I am looking after that day and every day, thither are overly the nurses and other staff that I am working around.I think that there are population that like towork in certain slipway and having the memory this will help to talk with them to know that their likes and dislikes are. This will help me to improve my skill and help accomplish the people around me and the patients happy to wishing to be working with me. Also exploitation these skills for school will be a big thing for me because there are things that I have to know to complete the task that are due for my assignments. With the sound memory skills I think that this would be better for me because there are a lot of task that I have went through that have a video of some sort to listen to so that I can gather information.This is helping because I can focus on what some one is saying so that I can get the information that I am sack to need for that assignment or for the course. I think that there are a lot of different ways that I use to learn and listening to some one explain things is one of my skills. I think that that I have a good memory and I am a fast learner so I think with all my skills put together I have a easier time at learning the skills that I am going to need to learn.I have wise to(p) so m any(prenominal) things in my life by observing someone else doing it, but the one that stays in my mind is learning how to purport. I remember watching my father turn the wheel, keep it steady, and watched his foot jibe the gas petal as well as the brake. I use to practice driving by sitting in a chair with a plate and turn it right, left, and steady. Since I watched my father drive for many years I thought it was my time to show them what I have learned without taking any lessons. Everyone was so impressed with what I knew by just watching my father drive and without any help from a seasoned driver. You can learn a lot just from watching another(prenominal) person, and I am proof of that. Paying attention really pays off and saves a lot of time.The dissimilarity between classical and operant conditioning is that classical is more the natural behavior of a defeat when exposed to a specific stimulus whereas operant conditioning tries to create a certain answer by using certain stimulants. The response of the subject in classical conditioning is not learned it is just what comes naturally in a situation, however, the stimulus added to the equation then makes the subject have the kindred effect to only the stimulus. Operant conditioning aims to produce the desired reaction of the subject by using reinforcement or punishment. Oneexample of operant conditioning is when I first got my Pomeranian and was paper pedagogy her. We had to watch her constantly and whenever she went on the pad we laid out for her we would reward her with a, Good girl, and a treat.When she failed to make it on the pad, we would scold her and make her sit there while we cleaned up the mess. After a hardly a(prenominal) weeks, she was able to successfully go on her pad whenever she needed to go even if we were not there to praise her. An example of classical tr aining is similar to my other example. My friend had already trained his andiron to go outside to use the bathroom however, she would just sit there until someone saw her so if everyone was in another room she could have been sitting there for hours. He installed a cow tam-tam at the bottom of the door and when he noticed her sitting at the door, he would tap the bell himself to ring it and then open the door for her. Eventually she realized that the ringing of the bell meant that the door was going to open.Classical conditioning occurs when a controlled stimulus is offered to elicit a response. In the case of Pavlovs dogs, the bell create salvation. This was only after Pavlov fed the dogs after each time he rang the bell. The rules of classical conditioning are that1. A controlled stimulus must be presented before an uncontrolled stimulus. 2. The controlled stimulus and the uncontrolled stimulus have to be timed closely together. 3. The neutral stimulus has to be partnered with the uncontrolled stimulus many times before the conditioning can happen. 4. The controlled stimulus is unique from the other stimulus.When I was younger I would only drink Dr Pepper. When I got pregnant with my first child, Dr Pepper started making me queasy. After several months of realizing I was legal opinion sick to my stomach every time I drank Dr Pepper, I quit drinking it. To this day I will get sick to my stomach if I drink Dr Pepper.
Friday, April 12, 2019
Security Council Action Essay Example for Free
earnest Council Action EssayAccording to joined States and the 4 permanent members of the aegis council, Veto source grants the 5 members an authority essential on continueing global peace. The question at mickle states oppositely, that the preclude motives of these members were a serious obstacle during the acold war (1945-1991). founts A-E, when analysed, agrees, and likewise disagrees with this claim. Sources A, D and E as such agrees with the notion that veto force were a serious obstacle to action during the cutting war. Statistical information in Source A shows the number of vetoes exercised, mainly by the States and USSR. This inauguration can be considered as the most reliable reference book, simply as statistics show a deeper understanding of the situation at the time. Number of vetoes practiced by these countries, are seen to be concentrated on specific periods, where the tensions between USA and USSR heightened in the Cold War.For instance, the most n umber of vetoes in UN history has been noted between 1946-55, during the period where the Truman doctrine, and the Berlin parry was in act. Hence, actions by the trade protection Council failed to take effect, since veto delayed or halted international action. Source A shows that USA had used the veto power most during the Reagan era, from 1976-85. This reflects the use of veto as a irradiation by the nations to uphold the national interests, such Reagans anti-communist policies to contain communism, as cited in Source D. The mention accurately highlights Reagans blind-eyed support to Israel, which again, postponed international action against human-rights and international-treaties violations by Israel. This thought process foreland is also back up in Source E, in which two academics explicitly state that global action were taken back collect to veto powers of the permanent members.It can be considered largely valid, since academics usually research on the situation in an ac ademic perception, and so is less likely to be biased. They throw away shown two sides to the story. Sources, A, D and E interpret in this standpoint seems to indicate that veto powers were indeed a serious obstacle during the Cold war. However, sources D and E discussed above can be deemed flowed for the reasons outlined below. The fact that the number of vetoes shows to be concentrated in specific period connotes the fact that veto power was not a serious obstacle to Security Council action throughout the whole time-period of Cold War. Source A shows the time periods where vetos show small numbers, where Detente or easing of relations between USA and USSR. During these time, number of vetoes seems to show a decline in numbers, reflecting agree between nations.Moreover, Source D originates from a writer/journalist on Middle-Eastern affairs. The writer may have interests to attract Middle-Eastern readers, and can be deemed to have a sentimental anti-Israeli and anti-American ton e to his writing. He mentions the mis-use of veto powers by the West, failing to note the abuse by USSR which had used the veto powers most, evident in Source A. When the sources are analysed in this manner, it seems to discredit the viewpoint in the sources, which support the view. Source B and C disagrees with the claim that veto powers of permanent members posed a serious hindrance to Security council action, lying on the note that veto has played a positive role in global action by the Security Council. Source B originates from an academic and seem to have a sound understanding of the workings of the United Nations. Both Sources B and C notes that the public fails to highlight the positive impacts of veto power. Former UN official, cited in source C is observant and can be deemed credible due to his position.This is partially accurate, as veto power has vested a sense of responsibilities in powers. It is true that UNGA, where no veto power exists, had failed miserably on overt ure with action, but became a debating club of the UN, which is explicitly stated in Source E. Source B also connotes the view that the scope of the effect of Veto power is exaggerated and takes a narrow viewpoint, which cites Taiwan as a permanent member of UNSC during the Cold War, but did not represent the major world powers of the world. This point can be reflected in the Iran-Iraqi war, in which the permanent members did not exercise veto powers. This is also supported in Source C, which highlights the growth in the number of countries in UNSC, which culminated a democratic atmosphere. This is shown in the statistics of source A, which clearly shows a declining trend of the use of veto power, and has not been used throughout the Cold War on posing as a barrier to Security council action.Sources B and C, analysed in this fashion, indicates that veto power was not a serious barrier to global action during Cold War. But the viewpoint of the sources discussed in the above paragraph can be deemed null for the reasons outlined below. Source B mentions the shortcomings of veto-power, and supports the view of sources A, D, and E that veto power has blocked important international resolutions. It also highlights the need for reforms, such as that called upon in the Brahmis report, to make the use of Veto more effective. It is also important to consider that the writer believes in the heart and soul aims of UN, and would have an interest to defend the basic framework existing in the United Nations. Similarly, source C originates from an ex-employee of United Nations, who could favour UNs existing structure sentimentally.He fails to mention the use of veto to uphold national interests upheld, especially by USA and USSR during the Cold war, mentioned in Source D. The sources analysed fully in this light, discredits the view that veto power did not pose as a hindrance to action by SC during Cold War. Sources A-E, and the realities of the situation during the given ti me period, seems to offer an alternative viewpoint. It is rather true that Veto Power posed as a hindrance to action, shown in sources A, D and E, but not throughout the Cold War, as pointed out in Sources A and E. Veto Powers were concentrated and effectively delayed action in general during the ignition of cold war, and the Reagan era. The use of Veto power during other times have been unparallel to the times mentioned above, and hence cannot be concluded that it has been a serious threat to Security council action throughout Cold War.
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Science and Math Is More Important Essay Example for Free
acquaintance and Math Is More authorised EssayDo you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for students to examine history and literature than it is for them to study science and math. Use specific originators and examples to support your opinion. (250-300 words) ESSAY History, literature, science and mathematics atomic number 18 all classic and very important sheath in their own sense. No subject can be given more or less importance in life. However, in my opinion, examine science and mathematics are more important than study history and literature. Firstly, science and mathematics are essential to most subjects. In other words, No matter which subject you want to learn, economics, finance or mechanics, you must have sufficient science and mathematics knowledge to understand it. For example, if person after studying science in secondary school, it is still possible to change lanes towards law at university, but if wholeness altogether d oes the art subjects in school, one has no possibility of becoming an engineer later.My second reason is, studying science contributes abundantly to the human life. What Im trying to say is, without science or mathematics, there wont be any technology, which we will still be in our prehistoric days without it. Electricity is a typical example. How will we survive if the magical power vanished? Not only its used for lighting but to make most machines work. We take aim electricity like we need air to breathe.Although Shakespeare or Charles Dickenss work are all very fascinating, but so are Newtons laws of gravity and movement. And actually, without the creation of paper or pen, which is science, William Shakespeare wouldnt exist. In conclusion, it is swooning that the importance of science and mathematics have to be learnt is much more than studying history and literature. Science and mathematics should be the two most necessary and impotent subjects in our modern life.
Tuesday, April 9, 2019
Post-Civil War Urbanization Pros and Cons Essay Example for Free
Post-Civil war Urbanization Pros and Cons EssayThe Post-Civil contend era of urbanization in the joined States created a number of improvements and positive results that outweighed the negative aspects of the time. The country witnessed an gain in population, a better public school system, and increase social reform movements. During urbanization, the population of the unite States rose. In 1860, none of the Statess cities had a million citizens but by 1890, New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia completely had more than one million inhabitants. With a population of approximately 3. 5 million people, New York became the present moment largest city in the world. A wave of immigration from Europe contributed to the increase in population. These New Immigrants came from easterly European folksy areas such as Italy, Greece, and Poland. The increase in population allowed for the increase in other sections of society. As the population increased, the need for teaching also rose. The number of public high schools in America grew amongst the 1880s and the 1890s. The idea that a free government could not function successfully with uneducated and stolid people became more widely accepted.Colleges became increasingly necessary and schools designed for training teachers expanded. Education was greatly helped by the Morrill Act of 1862 which granted public lands to the states for support of education, many of which became state universities. Urbanization and the population boom allowed for education to greatly increase. The problems surrounding the immigrant and working class helped awaken a new social reform movement. Jane Adams was a college-educated reformer against war and poverty. In 1889, she established the Hull dwelling house as a settlement fireside to help immigrants.More settlement houses were established and used as centers for activism and social reform. In 1893, the Hull House successfully lobbied for an Illinois anti-sweatshop law to protect wo men workers and prohibit child labor. Urbanization after the Civil War helped to reawaken the Social Reform movements in America. Urbanization helped the United States of America rebound after the Civil War. The people boom, growing education, and social reforms were all beneficial results that changed the nation.Though there were some negative aspects of urbanization, the good results outweighed the bad. Kaitlyn Lucas Ms. Rizzo AP United States History B February 10, 2014 Urbanization Cons The post-Civil War age of urbanization had terrible effects on the nation as a whole. The good aspects of urbanization were not worth the bad aspects that accompanied them. The United States of America faced new problems. Urbanization led to pollution and waste production, and a disturbance in rural America. People who lived in the country produced very little waste.They used and renewed the resources at their disposal. Once urbanization began to pick up and new businesses such as Sears began to package things in throwaway bottles, boxes, bags, and cans, getting release of waste became a problem. Pollution became a real problem in cities and sanitary facilities could not fall out up with the waste produced by the booming population. The cities were filled with a permanent stench due to dirty water, uncollected garbage, unwashed bodies, and animal droppings. Urbanization removed and replaced many jobs, particularly those in agriculture.Farmers were drawn from their palm and moved to cities to work in factories. Rural America was declining and giving way to the rise of urban America. local anaesthetic general stores were replaced by large chain department stores such as Macys. The era of urbanization increased the division between classes. The Wealthy lived in suburban mansions and the poor lived in dirty slums, many assay to survive. Urbanization created mass waste production, and the decline in rural America. Any good that came out of post-Civil War urbanization, was overshadowed by the negative aspects of the time period.
Sunday, April 7, 2019
Plantation Crops and the Slavery System Essay Example for Free
Plantation Crops and the Slavery System EssayPlantation crops and the slavery system changed mingled with 1800 and 1860 because of the industrial revolution. After the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention, the south-centralern states were granted freedom to decide about the legality of slavery. At this point in time, the cotton plant production was very low and there were around 700,000 slaves in the entire country. Cotton changed the course of the American economic and racial future, because of the mass production of textiles. The cotton quantities increased considerably. The South was producing and exporting over sixty- seven percent of the worlds cotton by 1840 which gave the region well-knit economic power. As the cotton production continued to grow it required more manpower or slaves. The supply of slaves needed for growing of such production was restricted, making slaves more valuable resulting in the domesticated slave transaction.The domestic slave trade emerged as a crucial commercial enterprise during the 1800 and 1860, which resulted in white planters looking for new slaves in the upper South states. (Henretta, Edwards, and self-importance 2012, 352-359) For white planters, the interstate trade in slaves was lucrative it pumped notes into the declining Chesapeake economy and provided young workers for the expanding plantations of the cotton belt. For blacks, it was a traumatic journey, a new Middle Passage that broke up their families and communities.Arise, Arise and weep no more, dry up your tears we shall part no more, the slaves sing hopefully as they journey to new lives in Tennessee. (Henretta, Edwards, and Self 2012, 358) The domestic slave trade emerged as a crucial commercial enterprise operating through with(predicate) a coastal and inland. The coastal system sent slaves to the sugar plantations in Louisiana and the inland to cotton plantations. The domestic slave trade was crucial for the prosperity of the southern economy. It was an important resource to raise money and help support the economy of the Upper South. (Henretta, Edwards, and Self 2012, 352-359)ReferencesHenretta, J. A., Edwards, R., Self, R. O. (2012). America A Concise History, Volume atomic number 53 To 1877, 5th Edition. Boston Bedford/St. Martins.
Theory Building Essay Example for Free
Theory Building EssaySome of the theories utilise to explain dissentent aspects of organizational management include Maslows Hierarchical Theory of Needs and Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory. According to Maslows guess physio sensible needs supervene psychological needs. Maslows theory states that certain needs which are inborn internal motivations influence the decisions made by man-to-mans (Landy Conte, 2006, p.335).His theory allowed for the milieu to play a significant role in motivated behavior by suggesting that once a determined of needs are satisfied by environmental forces, the next higher needs are activated in an undivided. As opposed to Maslows theory, Freud places emphasis on the role of an individuals mind specifically his unconscious mind in the determination of an individuals motivation. Within Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory, an individuals unconscious desires determine his motivations. Both theories can be utilise to explain the motivations behind individual s actions and decisions within the field of business.How do propositions and hypotheses differ?According to Zikmund (1988) a proposition is a rumor concerned with the transactionhip among concepts. It is an assertion of a universal connection between types that have certain properties (p. 44). As opposed to this, a hypothesis is an unproven proposition or supposition that tentatively explains certain facts or phenomena.It is a proposition that is existentially testable (Zikmund, 1988, p.45). The main difference between the two may be apparitiond to the fact-finding use of a hypothesis as the hypothesis is apply to investigate and test a claim. It is in-chief(postnominal) to note that the hypothesis itself is a proposition the difference of a hypothesis from other propositions merely lies in its use to verify or falsify a claim. Given this context nonpareil might thereby state that although a hypothesis is a proposition not all propositions are hypotheses.How do concepts dif fer from variables?According to Zikmund (1988) a concept refers to a generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or process that have been given a name (p. 41). As opposed to this, a variable is a concept whose tax stirs from subject to case (Macionis Plummer, 2005, p.51). Consider for example the concept price wherein price refers to the value of an object.Within the context of the department store, the price of different objects differ from from each one other due to the differences of the factors used in determining the value of an object. In addition to this although some concepts may correspond to a set of empirical measures, not all concepts do as opposed to variables that may correspond to two or more values.Comment on this statement There is nothing as interoperable as a strong theory.A theory refers to a retentive set of general propositions used to explain the seeming relationships among certain observed phenomena (Zikmund, 1988, p.41). The ories are important as they provide a framework for the analysis of a particular event. A theory may thereby provide an individual with the necessary assumptions that may trace the reason for the occurrence of a particular event. In a sense, one might state that it provides an individual with the causal explanation on how an event q was caused by an event p.It is necessary however that the theory used for the explanation is a good theory. A good theory here refers to a theory whose empirical content is less than or equal to the logical content (Boland, 1989, p.56). Such is the characteristic of a good theory since it ensures that the theory is empirically verifiable and hence testable. Given this context, there is nothing as practical as a good theory since it ensures that ones explanations for the occurrence of a particular event is continuously verifiable and hence testable and thereby easily proven to be valid easily.The 17th-century Dutch philosopher benedick Spinoza said, If th e facts affair with a theory, either the theory must be swopd or the facts.According to Spinoza, when facts conflict with a theory there is a necessity to either change the theory or change the facts in order to ensure the theorys validity. A theory is either formulated by means of the use of inductive reasoning or deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning refers to the logical process of deriving a conclusion about a specific instance based on a cognise general premise or something known to be true (Zikmund, 1988, p. 46).Inductive reasoning, on the other hand, refers to the the logical process of establishing a general proposition on the basis of observation of particular facts (Zikmund, 1988, p.47). In the case of a theory formulated using a deductive argument, there is a need to mensurate the validity of propositions facts in order to ensure the validity and soundness of the argument. In the case of inductive arguments, the change or addition of a proposition facts changes th e conclusion thereby leading to the change of the theory itself. regulate another definition of theory. How is the definition you found similar to this books definition? How is it different?Kerlinger (1979) defines a theory as a set of interrelated constructs (variables), definitions, and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomenon by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining natural phenomena (qtd in Creswell, 2002, p. 120). As opposed to this Zikmund (1988) defines a theory as a coherent set of general propositions used to explain the apparent relationships among certain observed phenomena (p.41).As can be seen above, both definitions note that a theory is composed of more abstract components in the form of propositions wherein each proposition is interrelated in such a way that when combined together they formulate one coherent and systematic worldview. The difference of Kerlingers definition however may be traced to his addition of what a theory is trying to explain that being natural phenomena. Hence, Zikmunds definition may be seen as presenting a broad definition of a theory whereas Kerlinger narrows his definition by stating what a theory refers to.ReferencesBoland, L. (1989). The methodology of Economic Model Building mannerology After Samuelson. London Routledge.Creswell, J. (2002). Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches. London SAGE.Landy, F. J. Conte. (2006). Work in the 21st Century An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology. London Routledge.Macionis, J. K. Plummer. (2005). Sociology A Global Introduction. Np Pearson.Zikmund, W. (1988). Business Research Methods. California University of California Press.
Saturday, April 6, 2019
Foreigners Essay Essay Example for Free
Foreigners Essay EssayIs Paia a mend choice for Luba than Lachance? Luba Dominescu, the only female child of the Dominescu family, plays an important role in the novel Foreigners. After going through a hard conviction with her family in Canada, the country they drive just immigrated to, Luba becomes more mature and her feminine charm gradually shows up. Paia Manescu and Lachance ar two boys who fall in love with this young lady and they compete with each other to develop her heart. Although the blue-eyed boy, Lachance, seems to be more attractive to Luba, Paias love for Luba has lasted for a tenacious time and their families in liberal support their marriage. They also have more things in common to promote their relationship, such as language and polish. Furthermore, Paia cigarette be two a nice save and a wonderful discussion to service of process the Dominescu family out of difficulties. Therefore, Paia is a better choice for Luba than Lachance. First of all, Pa ia makes a better mate for Luba because Lubas parents, Stefan Dominescu and Sofie Dominescu, have been really good friends with Paias parents since they were in their old country Romania. In these two families, It had always seemed deport to everyone that Luba would marry Paia (155).As soon as the second time Lachance visits the Domincescu to court Luba, Stefan along with Luba purposely visits Paias family to tell them that it is necessary now for Paia to propose to Luba if he wants to marry her. This example shows that Lubas parents wish their miss to choose Paia instead of Lachance and there is no doubt that a life of marriage with parents blessing and full support will be happier. In addition, for Luba herself, she has known Paia since they were little children and he had cared her for such a long time (158). However, Paia is just a boy she knows from school only a few months ago.Compared with Lachances unacquainted(predicate) and sudden affection, Paias love is obviously more reliable and sincere. Another advantage Paia has is that he comes from the homogeneous country as Luba, in other words, he was one of her people, spoke the very(prenominal) language, played the same melody (158). As a mew immigrant, Luba apparently can not speak English scarce the correct way so that if she marries an English boy like Lachance, she may have difficulties communicating with her husband and it greatly increases the possibility of misunderstanding and arguments between the couple.Besides language, things such as traditions, eating habits, belief and music are also important factors that can influence a relationship. For instance, when Lachance plays music at Lubas home, the tunes sounded funnily to the Romanians ears (155). However, since Paia grows up in the same culture as Luba, there are no cultural differences and chat barrier between he and Luba and it is a lot easier to maintain and improve their relationship. Not only can Paia be a better husband, but he a lso becomes a more helpful son of the Dominescu family.After Luba marries Paia, they will live in the same house with Sofie and Stefan and stay with Lubas family rather than attend Lachance to join his father and have a more unsettled life (158). In this way, Luba is able to cover up to take care of her little brother and Paia would work with tata, helping with everything (158), which means Paia can share the minacious burden of supporting the whole family that has placed on Stefans shoulder since they moved to Canada.These two aspects shows that Paia both brings more family happiness to Luba and helps the Dominescu family gradually get out of difficult circumstance. In conclusion, marrying Paia is obvious a better choice for Luba. He cares for Luba for a longer time than Lachance, has more support from their parents and he shares the same culture and speaks the same language as Luba. Also, he can take care of Luba, as well as her family. Although Luba has difficulties choosing h er husband between two gentlemen who are both charming and attractive, it is still lucky for her to have the exemption to decide her own marriage.
Friday, April 5, 2019
The General Information For Anti Globalization
The creative activitywide Information For Anti GlobalizationAnti-Globalization was defended as a belief shared by various political groups that mountain mustiness oppose world-wideization (=the process of making or sothing such as a business operate in different countries close to the world) because of bad effects it has on concourse, especi onlyy in growing countries, and because of the damage it does to the environment the Longman Dictionary of modern English Advanced Learners.Almost the anti- globalisation activities are spontaneous, the people whose benefit was moved(p) stood up then carry outed the anti-globalization activities such as demonstration, ask for relieve In fact, the activities which are opposite to globalization back end be separate into 2 groups Anti-Globalization and Alter-Globalization.The anti-globalization group directly opposes to the globalization activities they think that the movement of people everywhere the frontier must be controlled str ictly explorer other sylvans native resources and humane resources are not permitted. This group argued that biodiversity and natural resources can be damaged permanently and mainly call for democratic representation, advancement of human rights and more egalitarian states.The targets of this group are the World Bank (WB), Inter state of matteral Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization for economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) and free trade treaties like the North American tolerant Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), the Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) and the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).Alter-globalization is the name of a social movement that supports global cooperation and inter work on, but which opposes the negative effects of economic globalization, feeling that it often works to the detriment of, or does not adequately promote, human values such as environmental and cl imate resistance, economic unlessice, labor protection, protection of indigenous cultures and human rights. WikipediaThe different between anti-globalization and alter-globalization is anti-globalization against any kinds of globalization but the alter-globalization just mentioned about human rights, the environment, national sovereignty, and cultural diversity and so on.There are 2 popular forums for anti globalization World Social Forum and World Economic Forum.Chapter 2 Why anti-globalization still exist?To analyst the reverses of globalization, we focus on three objects that the globalization affected to local anesthetic companies, local population, and the local economic.Firstly, the local firmsWhen the nation open to globalization too soon, and too sudden, the local firms had not prepare enough to face with the rivalrous of over sea corporations will go to bankruptcy easily. It is easy to find the example for Chuong Duong companySecondly, the local populationIf the global ization incurred, local firms go bankrupt will cause the unemployment, the new organizations which had not launch enough yet can not hired these new unemployees, this cause the high unemployment rate. This is the main terra firma for indigent at Africa.Disease can move from country to country very fast because the people can travel to other countries by air, by bus, trains or other transportation in the curtly time. This cause the diseases spread very fast and became the reason of thousand cases of unused at 2006 for bird grippe from Indonesia and spread to other countries, 774 cases for SARS in 2003 at China and other East Asia countries, millions people dead because AIDSBrain drain talent will go out of the poor countries to the richers. This situation can be seen much at Africa, India and many poor countries all over the world. These countries finance to these students to go over sea study but they have never come back after graduated.Income distribution thirdly local econom icThe economic can not stable when the nation join to the worlds mart, it will be easy affect by the world situation, let came back to the crisis at 1997, the economic of the world had been affected.The create countries force the developing countries to cringe trade barrier but they keep for themselves by hamper the developing countries to export agriculture products which are very important for they to receive foreign currency earning.If the nation opens the securities industry too soon, sooner than establishing of the local organizations, the creating new jobs will less than the loss. The export of this nation will not develop, the import infringe instead, deficit flummox serious day after day. This nation will poorer and poorer. ultimately the local societyThe develop countries will export the pollution to the developing and undeveloped countries by indue the pollution goods industries, second hand goods to these countries.Chapter 3 Advantages and disadvantages of anti- glob alizationAdvantagesAnti-globalization can warn to the world the significant problems of the world such as warming of the earth, pollution, forest destroy, greenhouse affect, and so on. So that the governments and organizations can perform the actions to reduce these affects.Pollution as many countriesRacial discriminationSex discriminationThe war at Iraq and othersTo revealing the truth that have never disclosure themselves of IMF, WB, WTOAnti-globalization in addition calls for help the world when the actives raise the problems, the people all over the world can catch them then they may perform some activities to solve these problems.DisadvantagesThe demonstrations affected to social securities, many people die due to the extremist actions of the demonstration activities. The governments withal have to perform many actions to control these extremist activities.The power of the voice of the anti-globalization still weak, the persuade ability of this organization also weak, can no t appeal large group of people to do things, almost the activist just prevail alone or just at a small group.The anti-globalization are always action without organization, they just a group of people who were hurt by the activities of one organization then stand up and perform anti actions.Lack of evidenceLack of effectiveChapter 4 The anti-globalization activities at VietnamIn general, the anti-globalization activities of Vietnam are not many. This is because Vietnam performs globalization too late. After 30 Apr 1975, Vietnam was achieved to be an independence country. Almost people agreed that during ten years after the independence date was the black period of Vietnam economic. Almost activities become stagnation famine incur in many areas event at Mekong delta which was the biggest farm in the country education, health care and other social welfare were totally ignored.The globalization of Vietnam begins at 1986 with the open market policy name socialist-oriented market economy . Thank to this policy, the economic of Vietnam reversed, farmers got his own land (event in temporary) for manufacturing and alive. Up to declination 2001, US-Vietnam Bilateral Agreement was signed this is the very important shout for recover the economic and became the first step to join into World Trade Organization (WTO).These are just some activities at Vietnam for this event to guide for higher rate of pay in the industrial zone Binh Duong province and Bien Hoa city at 2008 for some Taiwan firmsConclusionAccording to Yin Yang theory of Chinese, every thing has 2 faces positive and negative, the existing of anti-globalization also belongs to this theory, anti-globalization will exist parallel with globalization, this also the rules of the existing opposition to develop, and develop must contain opposition. wit also issued the theory for relative every thing
Comparison Of Two Learning Theories Education Essay
comparison Of Two Learning Theories Education EssayLearning is a persisting changes in performance or performance potential that result from experience and interaction with the world (Driscoll, 2000, p.3). The way we process development is as individual as our genetic makeup, just now research has shown that there be many disparate types of attainment theories subprogram for classroom education. (Merriam, Caff arlla, Baumgartner, 2007 Weimer, 2002 Steiner, Floyd, Hewett, Lewis, Walker, 2010). The theories of behaviourist and cognitivist are important to compare because they are a part of the introductory foundations in which other acquire theories have been formed. In order to apply learning theories to nursing practice, the wish to understand the basis of different theories is important. Theories have been researched and tested and have some(prenominal) importance as to how intimacys cash in one(a)s chips across different situations and circumstances. Theories can giv e some consistent ways of looking at classroom practice and some rational explanations for what happens within the class.PhilosophyBehaviorism is primarily alludeed with observable and mensural aspects of human carriage. In defining style, airist learning theories emphasize changes in behavior that result from stimulus- receipt associations make by the learner. Behavior is directed by stimuli. An individual selects one reply instead of a nonher because of earlier learn and psychological drives existing at the moment of the action (Parkay Hass, 2000). In education, this type of learning travel into the settle with/punishment category. The rewards must be important to the learner in order to give the inducement to respond favorably.Cognitive science began a move from behavioristic practices which emphasized external behavior, to a concern with the internal mental processes of the mind and how they could be utilized in promoting effective learning. The models that had been developed in the behaviorist tradition were not disregarded, but instead the task analysis and learner analysis parts of the models were elaborated on. Cognitivism is based on the thought process behind the observations. Changes in behavior are detected and sensed to be an indicator of what was happening inside the mind. The new models addressed component processes of learning such as knowledge coding and representation, entropy storage and retrieval as well as the incorporation and desegregation of new knowledge with previous study. (Saettler, 1990)Origins and AuthorsThe foundation of Behaviorism, trace its roots to the early part of the 20th century. This was during a time when many psychologists emphasized self-analysis of mental processes (introspection) or the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud. In contrast, researchers comparable Ivan Pavlov, began to develop a framework which emphasized observable processes (environmental stimuli and behavioral responses). (Kentridg e, 2007) Originators and important contributors to behaviorism believed that learning is curb to observational and measurable behavior. The two major schools of thought are based on ideas from Pavlov who showed classical teach and Skinner who believed in operant conditioning.One of the most famous experiments on classical conditioning is from Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). Pavlov originally was doing an experiment regarding the social occasion of salivation in digestion. From his observations, Pavlov noticed when his assistant brought meat into the laboratory the dogs being apply for in this experiment would automatically start to salivate. Further research into this phenomenon formed the famous Pavlovs stimulus and response experiment, known now as classic conditioning. Classic conditioning is a four-step learning procedure involving reflexes. (Fig. 1)http//www.simplypsychology.org/pavlov.htmlFig. 1 Pavlovs Dog ExperimentDuring classical (or Pavlovian) condition ing, human and animal subjects change the magnitude and timing of their conditioned response (CR), as a result of the contingency between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). Whereas in classical conditioning, the US and the CS determine the form of the CR, in operant conditioning the strength and frequency, but not the form, of the response is independent of the US.(Schmajuk, 2007)B.F. Skinner (1974) coined the term operant conditioning it means roughly changing of behavior by the use of strengthener which is given after the desired response. Skinner place threesome types of responses or operant that can follow behavior. Skinner believed that we do have such a thing as a mind, but that it is simply more productive to study observable behavior preferably than internal mental events. In essence, Skinner believed we are what we have been reinforced for being (Olson Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 76). Operant conditioning has been widely applied in clinical se ttings (i.e., behavior modification) as well as teaching (i.e., classroom management) and instructional development (e.g., programmed instruction). This theory states that when learning is rewarded, behavior is perpetuated or maintained, while punished behavior is removed. In the classic experiment of Skinner Box, a rat may receive a food reward every time he presses the bar. He presses faster and faster. (Fig 2).http//www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.htmlFig. 2 Skinners Rat BoxThe major techniques used in operant conditioning arePositive reinforcement increasing a behavior by administering a reward.Negative reinforcement increasing a behavior by removing an aversive stimulus when a behavior occursPunishment lessen a behavior by administering an aversive stimulusExtinction decreasing a behavior by not rewarding it.Albert Bandura thought Skinners theories were too simplistic although he in any case believed many of the psychological constructs of previous psycholog ical thought were far too laid back, and were neither problem-solving nor action-oriented (Bandura, 1997). He believed in reciprocal determinism, that is, the world and a persons behavior cause each other, while behaviorism basically states that ones environment causes ones behavior, Bandura, who was studying adolescent aggression, found this too simplistic, and so in addition he suggested that behavior causes environment as well. Later, Bandura soon considered personality as an interaction between three components the environment, behavior, and ones psychological processes (ones world power to entertain images in minds and language). (Bandura, 1997)Cognitivism considers the learner as an information processor, much like that of a computer. It believes that the black stripe of the mind should be opened and understood. The information comes in, is processed and leads to certain outcomes. The concept believed that people are not just like rats that respond to stimuli but quite a, they are rational thinking human beings that require active voice participation to learn. There are four major contributors to the Cognitivists theory.Howard Gardner believed that students learn in different ways. According to Gardner, we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, and the use of the body to bring problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences the so-called visibility of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, dissolve diverse problems, and progress in various domains. (Gardner, 1991)Fig. 3 -Multiple intelligencesRobert Gangne developed information processing theory identified eight levels of intellectual skills including signal, stimulus-response, chaining, verbal association, multiple discrim ination, concept formation, principle formation and problem solving. He also explained that there are five areas of learning outcomes verbal information intellectual skills cognitive strategies motor skills and attitudes.www.classweb.gmu.eduFig. 4-Levels of scholarshipAllan Paivio discovered Dual coding theory that states people process information in two different ways processing of images and the processing of language.Fighttp//cslsrv.ice.ntnu.edu.tw/LabNews/Minutes01S/20010412joseph.htmFig. 5- Dual Coding TheoryBenjamin Bloom draw six levels of learning in his model of critical thinking. These levels are also known as Blooms Txaonomy. .http//taspd.edublogs.org/2007/04/23/revised-blooms-taxonomy/Fig. 6- Blooms TaxonomyLiterature ReviewThe two movements differ particularly in their views on behavior. Behaviorism, whose research subjects were mostly animals, views behavior as an irreducible consequence of environmental stimuli, whereas Cognitivism, whose research subjects are a lot humans, sees behavior as a point from which to abstract the mental processes behind the behavior.Skinners studies of operant behaviors have become very useful in the field of learning and cognition (Corey, 2009). Studies have shown that behavior can be conditioned by reinforcements, positively, which increases the probability of the behavior happening again, or negatively, which decreases the probability the behavior will happen again (Olson Hergenhahn, 2009). Skinners theories still carry on in wide use, helping users understand and control behaviors in many disciplines as well as in issues ranging from advertising to parenting (Olson Hergenhahn, 2009). According to Corey (2009), the research of Kazdin (2001) and Spiegler Guevremont (2003) revealed that behavioral therapy is generally as effective as option therapies, and in some instances, more effective.The Cognitive Learning Theory supports the idea that learning includes different kinds of memories, need and thinking . One of the other important factors is that of reflection. Those that promote Cognitivsm believe that the learning process is internal and depends on memorized information from pre-existing knowledge. (Ausubel, 1974) The theory argues that the degree of which a person learns is not affected by the ability and graphic symbol of mental processing. (Craik Tulving, 1975 Craik Tulving, 1975) Cognitivism maintains that memory is stored by using a connective pattern of information that networks with other patterns by means of some type of a relationship. (Stoyanova Kommers, 2002)Use in Nursing EducationWriting behavioral-based instructional objectives seems to specify clear, measurable terms to assist learners. According to Morrison (2001), behavior based objectives become the end rather than the means for instruction. Morrison continues to point out that cognitive focused instructional objectives overcome this problem by eldest stating a general objective to communicate the intent. Additionally, they observe that cognitive objectives are well suited for describing higher(prenominal) levels of learning. (Morrison et al., 2001, p. 97)In behaviorism, the learner is actively involved in learning, practicing, and demonstrating new behaviors and is extremely dependent on receiving feedback from the pedagog. The educator is responsible for identifying behavioral outcomes, controlling the environment, and providing feedback. Current use of behaviorism in education is most often associated with education and training (Merriam et al., 2007). Behaviorism does well in education because itpromotes good behavior and recognizes that unwanted behavior has consequences. Students learn by observing and interpreting the behavior, and associated consequences, of others in a process termed vicarious reinforcement or modeling (Bandura, 1977). Learning by modeling involves a complex process of interpreting, coding, and retaining the information for future application, past engagin g in the modeled behavior (Bandura, 1969).Cognitivists have influenced educational strategies by including prior knowledge in influencing how new information is digested. Cognitive learning theorists believe that learning is an internal process in which information is integrated or internalized into ones cognitive or intellectual structure. Learning occurs through internal processing of information. From the cognitive viewpoint, how new information is presented is important. In the first or cognitive phase of learning, the student learns the overall drawing of what the task is and the sequences involved. In the second, or fixation learning phase, the learner begins to gain skill in do the task. In the last phase of learning, the automatic phase, the student gains increasing confidence and competence in do the task. (Elias et al., 1984)Personal UseI believe that we all use a part of the behaviorists way of learning, to some extent. We all like to be awarded for the work or behavio r that we have accomplished. We know there are repercussions and consequences for not adhering to the rules. Our behaviors represent how we are perceived by others in society. The determination of how others behave is by the use of checks and balances of stimuli and response. The way we act and/or behave, teaches people how to respond to us. I believe that I am incite to learn and acquire more knowledge. The ability to mentally organize, rehearse and comprehend new learning materials is one I strive to obtain.The motivation that has driven me to succeed in both by personal and master key lives has been founded on realistic and challenging goals.ConclusionThere are many different ways of learning and teaching. Two of the earliest methods of learning can still utilized in todays classroom. The foundation of theories helps us as a framework to base our learning and teaching upon. We can use positive and negative reinforcement as well as modeling to teach our students how to absorb an d maintain new materials. Behaviorism is a teacher based concept full of structure and rules. Examples are class lectures, note taking and role modeling. Cognitivist used a student based concept in which students can find out information by themselves by using case studies, research and discussions. These two types of learning theories can help to constellation our future generations.
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