Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Obesity a Complex Phenomenon When a person hears the word obesity thoughts that may come to mind are overweight, big, or unhealthy. Obesity is a growing outbreak in America that effects all ages and gender. Obesity today is becoming or has become a problem in America. Comparing to other countries, not one has an overweight problem near as bad as the United States. With that in mind, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health is a huge concern in America in which obesity has a big impact on. Obesity occurs when a person consumes more calories than what they burn.The human body needs calories to sustain life and be physically active, but to maintain weight it needs to balance the energy we eat with the energy thatÃ¢â¬â¢s use to operate. Childhood obesity in America is a growing disease because of advertisement of fast food, lack of physical activities, and parental control. This has made fast food a major health issue in young teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ lives, parents need to take charge and help out the situati on. Obesity is a complex phenomenon, but Ã¢â¬Å"the main causes can be grouped into three main topics, poor food choice, lack of exercise, and the lack of awareness. (Obesity; study) Poor food choice is one of the main causes. People today eat more and more fast food which is high in fats, cholesterol, and contains too much carbohydrate. The body is overloaded with fats and sugar, which is converted into body fat. The second main cause is lack of exercise. A recent study shown in Diabetes week states that Ã¢â¬Å"kids in elementary schools spend an average of 22-24 hours a week watching televisionÃ¢â¬ (Weight Loss). Kids no longer spend their free time playing outside; instead they sit in a couch all day and watch TV or play video games.The danger in some rough neighborhoods can also add to the situation, because some parents do not feel that it is safe for their children to play outside. A third contributing factor is lack of awareness about good eating habits. Mothers give their children too much choices and too little guidance in what to eat, advertising confuses kids and leaves them debating whether a fast food product is good or bad for their health, and conflicting information about diets and healthy eating from the food industry and medical experts just makes them confused about diets.Fast-food joints have not only come to dominate the American landscape, they are also the most visible American export around the globe. Unfortunately, Ã¢â¬Å"fast food contains almost no nutrients and is loaded with added salt, sugar, refined flours, fat, and preservatives. Ã¢â¬ (Weight loss) The irony is that even though at the moment getting a meal from a fast food restaurant seems great, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not. For every dollar that is spent on fast food, and every second saved at a drive-through, over a lifetime it comes back and puts people at serious health risk.Obesity amongst children is a serious matter that goes beyond a child putting on a few pounds. It is an issu e that has many health and social consequences, which often continue into adulthood. According to Su Shaoyong in his article Genetics and Obesity Ã¢â¬Å"obesity increases oneÃ¢â¬â¢s risk of developing high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, cancers, pulmonary disease, bone joint disorders, and early death. Ã¢â¬ (1) Obesity also often causes psychological problems.Many are judged on their appearance rather than their personality, meaning that people with obesity also suffer from discrimination and rejection by their peers. This ultimately causes poor self-image, which leads to low self-esteem. Meaning the greater the degree of obesity, greater the chance of suffering physical and psychological health problems. The good news is that there is no doubt that obesity can be prevented at an early age. Physical activity and inputting nutritional knowledge on kids are the main methods to preventing obesity.Parents and schools provide the connection to counterfeit a kidÃ¢â¬â¢s urge for fast-food. Adapting a healthy lifestyle at a young age is very important, since it is difficult to change later on. Ã¢â¬Å"The quality of food in schools, including school meals, vending machines, has a huge impact on a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s physical health. Ã¢â¬ (Obesity; Study) Schools should be careful and take into great consideration to try to provide a healthy overall menu. Schools need to require physical education during school and provide after-school opportunities for physical activities to help regularize a more active lifestyle for a kid.Second, parents are the most important role models. Ã¢â¬Å"Adults have the responsibility to encourage children to become active, help them watch their dietÃ¢â¬ . (Shaoyong 1) Some parents argue that they should be able to feed their children what they want, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s their kids own body so itÃ¢â¬â¢s up to them to take care of themselves. That should not be an excuse, being obese comes with sev eral other problems. Why would any parent want to worry about their children having any type of health risks? Adults need to fulfill their jobs as being parents towards heir children, by being able to teach and show their kids how to live a healthy lifestyle. Doing a lot of small things for example limiting the amount of times they eat out at a fast-food restaurant or buying more fruits and vegetables instead of convenience foods that have a lot of fat in it can have a big impact on their childÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Every day the number of obese children increases. It should be a number one priority in many families to eat properly and exercise, their lives depend on it.Most people in the United States have changed their lifestyle completely, from one in which there was more walking, physical and outdoor activity, into a lazy lifestyle with little or no exercise. Most citizens take cars to work and do office jobs, spend their days off watching TV, and would rather much prefer fast food o ver an exhausting home cooked meal. America has brought this problem upon themselves, now itÃ¢â¬â¢s up to its citizens to take precaution about the situation and help solve it by getting educated and becoming more aware of it. Word Count: 1030
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Blake's Poetry is multivocal, allusive and intertextual rather than directly expressive; philosophic rather than immediately intelligible.Ã¢â¬ With this assertion as a point of departure I will present a critical discussion of the two poems, Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' and Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger' from Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Innocence' and Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Experience' respectively, paying attention to both form and content. The two poems offered here from Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Innocence' and Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Experience' clearly support the statement that Blake's poetry is multivocal, allusive and intertextual. Both Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' and Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger' seem to be alluding to certain social norms and perceptions of the time when they were written and the two of them both clearly express different feelings or opinions of the forces at play in the world around us. The two poems are clearly inter-related as they both seem to offer contrasting opinions of the nature of beings and their creators, and because of the direct reference made to the lamb in the poem Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger'. Upon closer inspection of the poem Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb', we see, in lines 5 to 8, Blake offering an almost serene description of a lamb. Describing the lamb in terms of its tender voice which makes all the vales rejoice, its soft woolly coat being that of delight, and its feeding Ã¢â¬Å"by the stream & o'er the meadÃ¢â¬ (Watson 1992: 133). Blake uses very soft and mostly monosyllabic words to create a very sombre and tender mood in this poem. The mild tone of the poem adds much to the beauteous image of the lamb that is being created. Throughout the description of the beauty of the lamb the question is also being posed of who created the lamb, as is evident in the opening two lines of the poem Ã¢â¬Å"Little Lamb, who made thee?Ã¢â¬ /Ã¢â¬ Dost thou know who made thee?Ã¢â¬ and by asking who gave the lamb all its beautiful qualities. The second verse of the poem offers an answer to the question of who created the lamb. The creator, God, is alluded to as an answer by saying that he calls himself a lamb and that he became a little child. Watson (1992: 133) presents the facts that Ã¢â¬Å"the God who made the lamb is called a lamb Himself, because He was crucified (Ã¢â¬ËWorthy is the Lamb that was slain')Ã¢â¬ , and that Ã¢â¬Å"He became a little child at the incarnation.Ã¢â¬ Referring to the creator as Ã¢â¬Ëmeek and mild' continues the serene feeling within the poem that was created at the description of the lamb, and adds to the already blissful view of the lamb because of the fact that they share a name. By looking at the social circumstances of the time when this poem was written, a time of great social and political revolution, where views of authority and people's own self-worth were changing, it becomes possible to give an interpretation of the poem Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' based on these social circumstances. The idea of the lamb and the child both having a name that, at different times, were used as a reference to Jesus Christ could be seen as an allusive way of Blake trying to express the fact that all creatures were created in God's own image of himself. This point serves to enhance the fact that all people, animals and other earthly beings all have equal self-worth within the world. So at a time when people were revolting against the Catholic Churches control over them this poem could be seen as an attempt to highlight the fact that all people are equal and deserve to be treated as equals. If God created all living creatures in his perfect image of himself, which is a Christian beli ef, then all people should be granted the same status as each other. In contrast to Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' we find its counterpart from Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Experience' Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger'. In this poem, as in Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb', there is a question of the Ã¢â¬Å"unseen power behind the tigerÃ¢â¬ (Watson 1992: 146). The difference behind the questioning in this poem is the mood that the questions create. The mood is not peaceful and serene as it is in Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb', but rather the questioning here almost gives the reader a feeling of anger and aghastness at the thought of the same creator who created the lamb creating a creature so fearful as the tiger. The continued use of the word Ã¢â¬Ëdare' leaves the reader feeling as if the whole creation of the tiger was a shameful act. Lines such as Ã¢â¬Å"On what wings dare he aspireÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"what the hand, dare seize the fireÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"what immortal hand or eye/dare frame thy fearful symmetryÃ¢â¬ all help to create and complement this feeling. From the following verse the reader is left with the sense that even the stars were angered and upset at the creation of the tiger: When the stars threw down their spears, And water'd heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the lamb make thee? The image of stars throwing their spears and letting their tears fall in heaven, the place where the creator, God, is believed to reside upon, leads perfectly up to the question Ã¢â¬Å"did he smile his work to see?Ã¢â¬ Here the question is posed as to whether the creator was happy and satisfied at his creation of the tiger. Then, in the very next breath, the question is offered as to whether it is the same creator who created both the lamb and the tiger. Thus leaving the reader thinking how it can possibly be that a divine creator can create two such opposite creatures in this world. Turning back to the social context of the time when the two poems were written it is possible then to read two contrasting lines, one from each poem, as direct metaphors for society itself. Firstly, from Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger' Ã¢â¬â line 2 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"in the forests of the nightÃ¢â¬ , and secondly, from Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' Ã¢â¬â line 4 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"by the stream and o'er the meadÃ¢â¬ . The possibility exists that Blake was expressing his fear of the existing society in Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger' by describing it as a Ã¢â¬Å"forest of the nightÃ¢â¬ , which creates very dark, almost dangerous images of the existing society where one would not find much hope of serenity. The contrasting line from Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb', where society can be compared to a stream and a mead can be seen as Blake expressing his hope for society becoming a place as peaceful and beauteous as a stream or a mead. The tiger then can be related to the people who have control over society at this time. Those people who have Ã¢â¬Ëtwisted sinews of the heart' and who's Ã¢â¬Ëdreaded grasp' instil Ã¢â¬Ëdeadly terrors' into the people who they attempt to control. The revolution then can have its metaphor in Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' where the fears of the people can be replaced by the hope of a life where the Ã¢â¬Ëvales rejoice' at the Ã¢â¬Ësoftness' and Ã¢â¬Ëtenderness' of a Ã¢â¬Ëdelightful' life. In Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' Blake is perhaps expressing a child like innocence at the thought of living life in the perfect image that God has created for man. Moving on to Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger' Blake might be showing us that with experience our views of the world around us and the way that we exist within it are much harsher than what a child would dream it to be. These two poems are both written in the form of a lyric and are done so in order for Blake to express his immediate thoughts and feelings at a specific point in time. The fairly short length of the poems and the simple rhyming schemes, coupled with the contrasting choice of words in each respective poem add to the immediate effect of the feelings, images and moods created within the poems. The inter-relatedness of the two poems gives the reader a very complete feeling of the mood surrounding the time when they were written. Blake's poetry is clearly philosophic in all concerns and cannot be seen as directly expressive or immediately intelligible. The allusiveness and inter-relatedness of his poetry is clearly expressed in the two poems Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' and Ã¢â¬Ëthe Tyger' form Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Innocence' and Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Experience' respectively. These two poems present two contrasting views of a world and a creator that we are all inextricably tied to but all experience under different social and political conditions and are all able to understand and experience completely differently.
Reputation can make or break an individual. It determines how people view one another and it also decides how people treat and react to each other. In Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, the monster, Victor Frankenstein and Elizabeth Lavenza face struggles with their reputation and how it defines them. Also, in Othello by William Shakespeare, Iago, Othello and Desdemona are presented with similar struggles to the ones the characters in Frankenstein face. The presentation of reputation in both works allows the readers to understand how the characters interpret each other, how reputation can cause an inner struggle within a character and how reputation can cause a characters ultimate downfall. Reputation plays a large role in how the characters interpret each other. In these particular works, reputation gives a false understanding of two specific characters. In Frankenstein, the monster is completely misunderstood by the people around him. His grotesque appearance gives him a violent reputation, which even the monster himself recognizes. The monster says, Ã¢â¬Å"I was, besides, endued with a figure hideously deformed and loathsome; I was not even of the same nature as manÃ¢â¬ (Shelley, 119). Although the monster does display acts of violence during the duration of the novel, killing William Frankenstein for example, it is because he was thrown into a world with no one similar to him. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand how to act, and also he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to understand the concept of right and wrong. The monster just hopes for understanding, love and attention from anyone, but especially from his creator. When the monster says, Ã¢â¬Å"Cursed, cursed creator? Why did I live? Why in that instant, did I not extinguish the spark of life which you had so wantonly bestowed? I know notÃ¢â¬ (Shelley, 137), it becomes visible to the audience that the monster is aware the he is unnatural and it displays his confusion towards his own creation. A being with a truly evil nature would and could not wonder why they were created. Additionally, if he was indeed evil, he would not be pitying himself or feelings remorse about anything. Another character that is misunderstood because of his reputation is Iago. In this case, Iagos false reputation is what causes him to be so successful in his mission to take down Othello. Othello repeatedly refers to Iago as, Ã¢â¬Å"most honestÃ¢â¬ (2. 3. 6), which the audience knows to be incorrect. Othellos belief in Iagos so called honest nature and their friendship is what leads Othello to be blinded by the tricks Iago is playing. Iagos true nature is pure evil. He is constantly referred to as Devil Incarnate because he is conniving, vindictive, and he is able to commit terrible acts without feeling remorse. Iagos deception ignited Othellos doubts in Cassio and Desdemona. In addition, he has directly caused Roderigos death and he is indirectly the cause of Desdemonas death. At the start of the play, Iago says, Ã¢â¬Å"Heaven is my judge, not I for love and duty / But seeming so for peculiar endÃ¢â¬ (1. 1. 60-61). HeÃ¢â¬â¢s saying that he does everything for himself, not for Othello and that his actions are not to be mistaken for love and respect of duty. Othello is supposedly his best friend, yet Iago goes against him anyways. Emilia, Iagos wife, is stabbed by her own husband because she knows the truth about his tricks and he cannot risk the truth getting out. When it comes to power, Iago will stop at nothing to attain it. Along with interpretation, reputation can also have an enormous contrast with a characters personality. Through the use of his reputation, the readers see Victor Frankenstein change immensely. Victor holds a reputation of being a kind man with an overwhelming intelligence. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"curiosity, earnest research to learn rapture, as they were unfolded to me, are among the earliest sensations I can rememberÃ¢â¬ (Shelley, 25). HeÃ¢â¬â¢s always had a passion to learn and this is where the theme of danger of knowledge can come into play. Victor begins to struggle with his behaviour in comparison to his reputation. He tries to play God by putting together body parts from different users and it fails miserably for him. When Victor sees the monster he has created, he says, Ã¢â¬Å"the beauty of the dream vanished, and breathless horror and disgust filled my heartÃ¢â¬ (Shelley, 49). Only when he sees the monster does Victor realize the error of his ways. He believes that by pretending that the monster was never created, that he will essentially go away, but that is not the case. The monster begins to wreak havoc in an attempt to get the attention he craves from his creator. The creation and the acts of rebellion from the monster cause Victor to become ill and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s how Robert Walton finds him in The Arctic, which the readers learn in the letters Walton sends to his sister, Margaret. Victor faces an internal battle between his actions, his conscience, and his reputation, which causes his illness and his death at the end of the book. Othello also faces the struggle with his reputation. Othello is introduced as a confident, well spoken, and well respected character. Every other character in the play, even Iago can agree that Othello is, Ã¢â¬Å"of a free and open natureÃ¢â¬ (1. 3. 390). Iago is commenting on Othellos personality and heÃ¢â¬â¢s basically saying that Othello is very straightforward. Othello is appointed Governor of Cyprus and is responsible for keeping up with the expectation everyone has of him. The first signs of his inner struggle are seen when he begins to believe what Iago is telling him. Othello orders Iago to gather more information about Cassio and Desdemona. Othello begins changing the moment Iago mentions a possible relationship between Cassio and Desdemona. Othello is skeptical at first, but becomes convinced when Iago tells him that Cassio has Desdemonas handkerchief, which was Othellos first gift to her. He then begins to become more observant of what Desdemona does, and eventually, he starts to plan Cassio and Desdemonas demise. Othello ends up killing Desdemona and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when Lodivico and Gratiano compare him to his reputation. Lodivico says, Ã¢â¬Å"O, thou Othello, that wert once so goodÃ¢â¬ (5. 2. 288). This testimonial from Lodivico shows the readers that Othello has completely changed and lost against his struggle. His reputation and his personality are now polar opposites. Othello has lost the respect of his peers and his position as Governor of Cyprus. Lastly, in both works, reputation is responsible for causing two characters downfalls. Elizabeth Lavenza is the type of stereotypical woman that is kind and would do anything for her husband. Elizabeth has always been considered to be beautiful and her beauty can be seen as an advantage and a disadvantage for her. The Frankenstein family picked Elizabeth out of many children at the adoption agency because of her image and her image has also gotten her into a relationship, and soon to be marriage with Victor. Even though her beauty has helped her, Elizabeth has been nothing more than just, Ã¢â¬Å"a pretty present for VictorÃ¢â¬ (Shelley, 24). Elizabeth is the type of wife that supports everything her husband does and she would never go against him. Towards the ending of the book, the monster kills Elizabeth on the night of her marriage to Victor. The monster does this as a form of punishment for Victor, since he destroyed the female monster. The monsters gives Victor a warning by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I shall be with you on your wedding nightÃ¢â¬ (Shelley, 173), and Victor misunderstands the warning. He believes that the monster is coming after him and because of that, he leaves Elizabeth unattended and vulnerable to the monster. Elizabeth and Victor knew each other since childhood, and not once did Elizabeth over step the boundary of getting into Victors personal business. Elizabeth died because of the man she would do anything for. She died because she fits the reputation of a blinded woman in a relationship. Desdemona is also a woman who is seen as a personal possession. At first she belonged to her father, Brabantio, and the readers see an example of this when Iago and Roderigo tell Brabantio that heÃ¢â¬â¢s been robbed of something, which is his daughter. After Othello marries Desdemona, she is considered his. Although Othello treats Desdemona with love and respect, her reputation is still a wife that is considered an object, and a wife that would never go against her husband. Desdemona obeys every command she is given. An example of this is Othello telling Desdemona to go to her bed chamber and send away Emilia, and after Desdemona does what he says, she tells Emilia that, Ã¢â¬Å"It was his bidding; therefore good Emilia/ Give me my nightly wearing and adieu/ We must not displease himÃ¢â¬ (4. 3. 15-17). This specific example is about something as minor as sleep, but Othello also commands her about more serious things. Although Desdemona is the same as her reputation for majority of the play, there is one time where she isnÃ¢â¬â¢t. She asks Othello to give Cassio another chance even when Othello tells her that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t wish to speak with Cassio. This one difference from her reputation is the start of her downfall. Othello becomes sure of the love affair between Desdemona and Cassio and he begins to plot her death and then eventually murder her by suffocation. Even in death Desdemona stays true to her reputation. When Emilia asks Desdemona who is responsible for her murder, she says, Ã¢â¬Å"nobody; I myselfÃ¢â¬ (5. 2. 125). Othello just committed the ultimate betrayal by causing her passing and she still defends him. Desdemona attempts to protect Othellos reputation by clinging to her own. In both works studied, reputation can be used to a characters advantage or disadvantage. Iago benefits from his reputation, while the monster gets pushed into isolation and more violence. The contrast between Othello at the end of the play and his original reputation cause his struggle, while VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s actions cause his illness. Additionally, both Elizabeth and Desdemona die because of the reputation that is put onto them. Although sometimes reputations can be viewed as a good thing, more often than not, they bring more trouble than good.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Employment and Society - Essay Example Essentially, it seems that workers in the UK select what is important for them and then live their lives according to the dictates of their decisions. This idea is supported by Perrons when she says that: Ã¢â¬Å"The capacity of people to organize their own work biographies and plan their lifetime finances continues to vary now, as in the past, with individual and social factors. The former include responsibilities and opportunities outside as well as within the workplace and these remain highly structured by individual characteristics including gender, ethnicity, race, social class, educational background, age and stage in life course as well as individual preferences (Perrons, 2003, Pg. 72).Ã¢â¬ This means that individuals have the power to say no to certain responsibilities and they may do so if they feel that they are unable to handle such positions. Of course, in some cases, the individual may not be given a choice in which scenario they may have to give up a nine to five job and instead look for something on a part time basis to support them while they apply their energy and time into their personal lives (Tomlinson, 2006). Clearly, what is important to the workers in the UK today is not work itself but the work life balance. It must be remembered that many individuals like to work and readily give their creative input towards what they like to do. However, it must also be noted that not everyone can put in sixty hours week in and week out and those individuals will need special handling for which future business must be ready.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
What is the Tao (Way) - Essay Example The Confucian way of Tao and the East and West ways of Tao will be examined in the paper. The definition of Tao is "Tao represents the basic concept of Taoism. In general, this term belongs to the spiritual atmosphere of the ancient China and can be translated "way", "mean", "art", "skill"., 1 To answer the question, what is the Tao way, depends on which tenets of Tao you side with. Tao can be translated differently depending on the perspective of the doctrines of Tao and individuals understand. This means that individuals have different doctrines of Tao and it depends on which of these doctrines an individual understands and how they understand that the question can be answered. Tao can be though of a philosophical school of thought and one of these schools of thought is the one that concerns the thoughts of Confucius. According to Confucius and those that understand Tao with these doctrines Tao "refers , "Tao" refers to the art of ruling the state of the ancient emperors like King Wen and the Duke of Chou," 2 1 Mitchell, Stephen. "Tao Te Ching" (1998) New York. 1st Perenn similar concepts." 3 In this context, the polisemy of this term resembles the polisemy of the concept "prima materia" of the Greek-Egyptian classique alchemy or of the medieval European alchemy. The way of Tao is the way a person perceives these tenets and uses them in their life. They can be used in all aspects of an individual's life from work ethic to the way they understand the world. The Tao way can be thought of as the way a person understands. The way a person understands Tao depends on their beliefs about Tao. Tao is traditionally an Eastern religion and school of thought; however, it is now practiced in the Western cultures. The answer to the question might differ in the East than the West because the doctrines and interpretation have changed slightly in Western cultures. This is due to the fact that Tao is a part of life in the East for many and they been taught the philosophies and doctrines of Tao since birth. Tao in a sense has been adopted in the Western cultures so so me of the concepts have deviated in the process. Nagarjuna and the Limits of Thought Jay L. Garfield and Graham Priest Nagarjuna seems willing to embrace contradictions while at the same time making use of classic reductio arguments. He asserts that he rejects all philosophical views including his own-that he asserts nothing-and appears to mean it. It is argued here that he, like many philosophers in the West and, indeed, like many of his Buddhist colleagues, discovers and explores true contradictions arising at the limits of thought. For those who share a dialetheist's comfort with the possibility of true contradictions commanding rational assent, for Nagarjuna to endorse such contradictions would not undermine but instead confirm the impression that he is indeed a highly rational thinker. It is argued that the contradictions he discovers are structurally analogous to many discovered by Western philosophers and mathematicians. 3 Graham explains that "Taoism, the practice of the Tao concepts) started as a combination of psychology and philosophy but evolved into a religious faith in 440 CE when it was adopted as a state religion." 4 At that time, Lao-Tse became popularly venerated as a deity. Earlier in this discussion, the Confucius philosophy was explained to be one school of thought that individuals used to understand Tao. This is because they are closely related and the thoughts of Eastern religions have many of the same doctrines. Taoism, along with Buddhism and Confucianism, became one of the three great religions of China around the time of 440 CE. "With the
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Mineral Management Service in the federal Department of the Interior - Research Paper Example In fact, accusations of drug use and sexual misbehavior linking employees of Mineral Management Services and their industry counterparts expose actions that go beyond what is revealed in the agencies. An eye-opening series of report compiled in 2008 by the inspector general of the Department of the Interior exposed a shocking level of corruption that exist in the Minerals Management service (MMS) coupled with a cozy relationship between its employees and the Industry officials, that involves a high scale of culture of substance abuse and promiscuity within the agency (Abramowitz and Mufson, 2007). MMS is charged with the responsibility of collecting royalties from different companies, for these companies and to give them the right to produce and trade in oil and gas within the federal boundary. For instance, in the year 2007 alone, MMS collected a total of $9 billion from oil and gas royalties, and hence, this made this sector to be one of the chief springs of revenue for the United States. This agency in addition to that, also manages the Royalty-in Kind programs through its Denver office, via which it purchases the oil and gas from these energy firms and then resell it to refinery firms. In this office, based on the report, the inspector deduced that the officials of the MMS Royalty-in Kind program habitually guzzled alcohol at industry functions and even takes cocaine and marijuana. Worse of all, they had sexual relationships with these oil and gas representatives. According to the report, the Inspector general purport that more than a third of Royalty-in Kind officials were involved in taking bribes and gifts in exchange of contracts. This kind of messy arrangement and relationship cost a tax payer over$4 million dollar Literature Review According to the report written by Daniel Carpenter and David Moss, 2011, the disbanding of the Minerals Management Service, depicts how poorly the regulatory industry was functioning. The literature shows how this body was marred by rotten regulatory relationship, accusations in drug use and sexual misbehavior. Consequently, there was a proposal of disbanding of the agency by disintegrating and splitting its planning, revenue collection and regulatory role into three independent bodies of organizations. However, a keen evaluation of this step owing to the external political and social influence that at one time rocked the MMS operations, the reorganizations and reinvention will not automatically advance and develop how the federal or the government is managing the minerals within the federal boundary. Similarly, the memorandum report compiled in May 2010 briefing the outcome of the investigation that was done, probing the Lake Charles district office, one of the five major offices charged with the responsibility of overseeing gas and oil operations along the Gulf of Mexico. This report also revealed the level at which some of the MMS employees in the office collected gifts from offshore operators, ra nging from lunches, admission to sport events to participation in events with some of the senior industry personnel. Besides accepting gifts, some MMS employees in senior posts particularly the inspectors permitted the some energy companies to fill out inspection forms by themselves and lastly, the report records a series of e-mail letters exchanged between the former inspector and a certain employee purportedly an offshore operator assuring him his job security at that company. This is because during this era, the inspector was mandated to
Friday, July 26, 2019
Contracts and Leases in Common Law and UCC - Essay Example Normally, a contract is enforced and governed by the laws of the country where it was made. In the United States of America, a contract is governed by two types of state laws, that is, the common law and the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) (Bagley and Dauchy, 2012). Common law is a law which governs contracts for services and contracts that are not governed by the Uniform Commercial Code. Most contracts such as employment agreements, general business agreements and leases are controlled by common law. Common law contracts can either be bilateral or unilateral. However, the contracts are valid only if the three elements of common law contract formation are met. The elements of formation are offer, acceptance and consideration (Bagley and Dauchy, 2012). The uniform commercial code (UCC) governs the contracts between merchants and the sale of goods. The law was written by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL) and the American Law Institute (ALI). It was p ublished in 1952 to harmonize the law of sales and other commercial transactions in the United States. Although it has not been fully enacted, some provisions of the code have been adopted by all the fifty states of the US (Fullerton, 2011). Previously, the code was divided into 9 articles; however, after a number of reviews and revisions, the code is now divided into eleven articles with each giving provisions that relate to a particular area of commercial law. Article 1, gives the definitions of terms used in commercial law and the general principles that apply to the UCC. Article 2 covers all contracts pertaining to the sale of goods. Article 2A covers all transactions pertaining to leases of goods. Article 3 covers negotiable instruments such as checks and promissory notes.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
How to save a failing law firm - Speech or Presentation Example To be specific, the administration develops the rules and regulations required to govern all aspects of the company. Therefore, the administration should exercise innovation, in order to provide the company with guidelines that would shape the destiny of the firm in the long term perspective. On the other hand, management takes the established rules and regulations and implements them using the available resources in the firm. The management goals are usually in the short term. The available resources in a firm refer to the factors of production such as capital, labour, and skills. These two responsibilities are very important in running any firm as they define the future position of a company. For this reason, leaders and managers require to possess vast knowledge and skills for any meaningful success in a company. Knight and Day Company is in the verge of collapsing. Hence, there is the need to integrate leadership and management skill so as to revive the economy of this firm, and save it from losing its credibility. A number of critical issues threaten Knight and Day Company in its leadership and management. There are several challenges that these two dockets need to address immediately in order to save the existing situation. One of the potential challenges in this firm is the labour resource. There is evidence of poor management and utilization of the labour force in this firm. To begin with, there is evidence of unskilled labour resource.In any given company, lack of skilled labour force is one of the major drawbacks in the labour resource. Unskilled labour brings out low productivity in the farm. Labour is one of the most significant and scarce resource in any company. Therefore, it is the duty of the management to oversee hiring of skilled labour to ensure that tapped labour resource can be harnessed effectively. This will provide optimum profits for the firm. In addition, there is evidence of loss of the already existing labour facility as the workers quit their jobs and take up alternatives out of this company.This is a major problem that can lead to failure of a company. This is because when the firm loses its laborer, it takes time to replace it through the recruitment process. This contributes to a large extent to the losses in a firm. The problem of labour resource management might require more allocation of resources such as time and money. In the process of reformation, there is the need to reform the labour resource through a recruitment process in order to have the required skilled labour. The recruitment process involves advertisement, interviews and even orientation of new employees. All these activities require financial support to implement. Moreover, skilled manpower requires that the salaries are moderated, and more specifically raised in order to avoid the massive departures of the employees from the firm. In addition, the whole process would require that the management sit in various sessions in order to provide a new set of development policies that would be used to regulate the labour force. This will require abundant time and also the use of money Another factor threatening the success of this firm is the poor co-ordination of the various departments and branches. For instance, the Los Angeles office operates autonomously from the rest of the offices in
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Business environment Report - Essay Example The changing business strategies to cope with the fast transforming socio-economical paradigms of the times have become crucial factors that enable the businesses to compete against their rivals. The external factors are often the major proponents that necessitate organizational changes. The world economy is presently undergoing tremendous turmoil. In the recent past, the American economy has been under tremendous strain with its deteriorating job market and dismal performance of its various public private companies. Its offshore business has also suffered as a result of bad economic policies of the current republican government, headed by George Bush. The bankruptcy of few of its major financial institutions has resulted in the financial meltdown that has created a serious crisis situation in the American economy that has cascaded down to the rest of the world. The recessive trend in the American economy has forced the businesses to meet the challenges with creative business strategies and embrace the changing business compulsions with vigour and vitality. In a news report in the Ã¢â¬ËGuardianÃ¢â¬â¢ on 3 December 2008, it was reported that UKÃ¢â¬â¢s top retailer, Tesco was really struggling against Ã¢â¬ËMorrisonsÃ¢â¬â¢ to maintain its position. While Tesco had registered its worst sales in 14 years during the Christmas, Morrisons had surged ahead towards the position of top retailer! The article was succinct in describing the cause and effects of the current recessive trend in the retail industry and the various ways through which they were trying to meet the challenges and attract customers to increase their sales. In yet another news item in the same issue, Christ Hirst had highlighted the Ã¢â¬ËChristmas supermarket advertisementsÃ¢â¬â¢. Hirst has revealed that the advertisements play a significant role in the boosting the sales figure and MorrisonsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËThe campaign is about freshness and provenance,
Kite Runner (Write Hassan's Story) - Essay Example This showed the harassment and troubles that the ethnic minorities faced in Afghanistan at the hands of the pathans. After the incident with Hassan, Amir and Hassan moved apart when Amir put some money under HassanÃ¢â¬â¢s pillow and blamed Hassan for stealing. Hassan took the blame and went away with his father while Amir moved to Pakistan, and eventually to America (Hosseini 295). Ali went with Hassan to a mountainous region which was isolated in central Afghanistan and was inhabited by their ethnic race. Hassan has always been loyal and good-natured. He is rather an innocent child who became a victim of the sexual desires of the rapist who raped him. The story unfolds to the fact that Amir and Hassan have been separated. While Amir is in America living a peaceful life, Hassan spends his whole life and death in Afghanistan in the country which is the focal point of the Soviet invasion and wars, and later the centre of violence of Taliban. HassanÃ¢â¬â¢s father Ali dies due to the violence and Hassan gets married and has a son who is soon sent to orphanage after Hassan and his wife are killed by the Taliban (Hosseini 316). HassanÃ¢â¬â¢s life has been tragic and innocent throughout and he has seen very less of good things just because he was an ethnic minority living in a violent country like Afghanistan. He spent his best time while he was with Amir in his house as they both played kite running and spent a lot of time together. It was after the rape which leads the change in HassanÃ¢â¬â¢s life and shaped AmirÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt of not helping him throughout the story. This shows the ugliest picture of the injustice that the ethnic minorities had to face in Afghanistan. After Hassan leaves AmirÃ¢â¬â¢s house, he is forced to serve his rapist who belonged to a rich and powerful family. Hassan cannot take any action against his rape and instead has to dutifully serve the rapist just because he
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Nokia Marketing Plan for Smartphone - Research Paper Example The launch of Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) marked a new era of mobile phone communication in 1981. Nokia took some bold initiatives during those days with the launch of first car phone, and it's been a competitive journey ever since. Year 2010 may well prove to be happening year for Nokia on account of; Its recent alliance with Shanghai New Alliance, a Chinese investment company, with an intention to offer mobile services in China. It is worthwhile here to mention that China is projected to be the biggest market of communication gadgets in times to come (TMC News, 2009). Smartphones are the latest additions to the mobile telephony. These are the advanced versions which tend to breach the dividing line between a computer and a mobile phone. With a Smartphone we can add on applications to it to enhance performance, for additional entertainment such as games and movie viewing, for better connectivity or even for better data processing. Continuing with the trend of being innovative and competitive Nokia was able to become a market leader in mobile phone manufacturing by 19982. With the convergence of technologies, Nokia started the journey towards the smarter era, with the acquisition of Symbian in 2004 and subsequently the company reorganised itself into four business segments namely, mobile phones, multimedia, enterprise solutions and networks so that the company can align its structure with the futuristic strategies (Datamonitor, 2009). The Smartphone is the latest trend in technology which intends to pack as many features as possible in the smallest possible handheld device, for usages as diverse as a TV receiver to a mini computer. Therefore, the coming years belong to smarter devices and with alternatives like Apple iPhone, Google's Nexus and many more, the competition seems to become a fierce one. As Nokia has the advantage of being an established name in all major markets around the world, it becomes easier for the company to plan out strategies for marketing its range of Smartphones. By December 2008 Nokia reported revenues worth $74,611.7 million. Having footprints in more than 130 countries, Nokia today employees more than 125,000 people at different locations3. Company's vision and strategy statement says4, "Nokia's strategy is to build trusted consumer relationships by offering compelling and valued consumer solutions that combine beautiful devices with context enriched services." With production units in different parts of the world strategically located in Brazil, China, Finland, Great Britain, Hungary, India, Mexic o, Romania, and South Korea, Nokia is in a position to leverage the economies of location and scale. Whenever the company finds that its operations are not able to deliver in any of its production facilities due to some local or regional problems, it can get the other production facilities in action to make up for the losses. While devising
Monday, July 22, 2019
God and Morality Essay The question is this Ã¢â¬â Is it possible to be of good moral character while not believing in God? Looking at the definition of morality as defined in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy the term morality can be used descriptively or actively. A] to refer to some code of conduct put forward by a society or some other group such as religious. Or put forward by a society and is acceptable to an individual for his or her own behavior. B] to refer to a code of conduct that, given specific conditions would be put forward by all rational persons. Morality appears to be separate from religion and although not spoken of or referred to as such there are different groups of moral persons, not all are viewed as good or just. Some examples may include Christian morality, Nazi morality, Greek morality etc. At times etiquette is included as part of morality. Hobbs expresses a standard view when he talks about manners. Ã¢â¬Å"By manners I mean not here decency of behavior, as how one man should salute another, or how a man should wash his mouth or pick his teeth before company and such other parts of small morals, but those qualities of mankind that concern their living together in peace and unity. Ã¢â¬ (Hobbs, 2010). The laws and our legal system is distinguished by a moral system that includes having written laws or rules, penalties and officials to make the laws and enforce God and Morality pg. 3 the laws and then penalize. Laws are often evaluated on moral grounds. Moral critisism is often used to support a change in a current law or to design a new law. Religion differs from morality or having a moral system. Religious morality is based on stories or events that are past. These stories and events are used to justify the behavior that religion prohibits or requires. At times morality is regarded as the code of conduct that is put forward by religion. Morality is thought by many to need some religious explanation or justification. However, just as with law some practices and precepts are critical on moral grounds. Morals provide us with a guide for conduct, where as religion is always more than that. The definition and description of morality tells us that morality is a belief system that follows the rule of Ã¢â¬Å"goodnessÃ¢â¬ . It is similar to a Ã¢â¬Å"blanketÃ¢â¬ over society and is separate from religion. Even in these times morality is always in question. In an article written by a Baltimore Sun journalist titled Ã¢â¬Å"The Morality Brigade. Ã¢â¬ The writer expresses his opinion onto his readers stating that Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re still legislating and regulating private morality, while at the same time ignoring the much larger crisis of public morality in America. Ã¢â¬ (Reich, R. 2013) He continues on to back up his accusations. He writes that legislatures in North Dakota passed a bill banning abortions after 6 weeks. (At which time a heart beat is detectable) as well as approved a fall referendum that could ban all abortions by defining human life beginning at the time of conception. He continues on that these same legislatures God and Morality pg. 4 Ã¢â¬Å"worry about fetuses but they show little concern for what happens to children after they are born. They and other conservatives have been cutting funding for child nutrition, health care for infants and their mothers, and schools. Ã¢â¬ (Reich, R. 2013). This is just an example of American Morality. So it seems that at this point I have defined what morality is and how it can be applied. I have also touched on Religion and Morality being a very separate entity. Now I will discuss God and Morals. It is very possible for a person to not believe in God and posses high moral standards. Understanding that the person being moral is not due to their belief in God, it is independent of that. Having a belief in God is dogmatic to say the least. There is no rational way to say that God exists. To believe in God one must bypass reason and embrace faith. This is ok if believing in God gives a person comfort and security, although if we tie God to morality it may become problematic. Something as important and influential as morality should not be based on a dogma. If there is no proof that God exists beyond a shadow of a doubt than why do people still believe? Indoctrinate plays more of a role than rational and clear thinking. Religious indoctrination caters to our psychological insecurities and needs, not to reason. Think of some things that we know do not exist. An example would be the tooth fairy or maybe unicorns. We are proud to be skeptical and disapproving, however religion tells us when it comes to believing in God, faith is a virtue. God and Morality pg. 5. Morality is an autonomous human virtue that is independent of God. Otherwise, it would not be possible that atheists behave with impeccable moral standards and so many God believers do not have any morals. Let it also be noted that the great moral traditions of the world do not bring God into morality. Two of the most recognized and adored moral traditions in the east, Confucianism and Buddhism do not believe in God. The roots of morality in the west are in the idea of ancient Greeks, especially Plato and Aristotle who based their morality on reason alone, not on any dogma. It appears that religions who originate in the Middle East have a pronounced inclination to base morality on God. These same religions are also the most violent ones in history, killing many in the name of God. There is no evidence that theists are more moral than monotheists. Physiological studies have failed to find a significant correlation between the frequency of religious worship and moral conduct. An example is that convicted criminals are much more likely to be theists than not. With this being said it is a clear assumption that good people do good because they want to do good. It is not because they personally benefit from the good they do or because they are being forced. Fundamentalists perceive that the universal moral standards are required for the proper function of a society. Philosophers as diverse as Plato, Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, George Edward Moore, and John Rawls have demonstrated to us that it is possible to have universal morality without having a belief in God. God and Morality pg. 6 As is stated by Paul Kurtz Ã¢â¬Å"One needs no theological grounds to justify these elementary principles. They are rooted in Human experience. Ã¢â¬ (Kurtz, P.1996) Now we will discuss that morality and God are linked and that religious beliefs are linked to the morality of each and every person who chooses to live their life in a moral way. If God does not exist, says DostoyevskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ivan Karamazov, Ã¢â¬Å"everything is permitted,Ã¢â¬ which means that we as humans can make choices whether they are good or bad, hurtful or nice. The direction in which society is going in suggests that people have lost their Ã¢â¬Å"wayÃ¢â¬ . Too many bad things happen due to human badness. God is no longer allowed in public places, schools, government agencies, etc. This argument suggests that because God has slowly disappeared from our day to day lives society is going downhill at a very fast pace. Does this mean that God is linked to morals in our modern society? Fundamentalists claim that all illÃ¢â¬â¢s in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society such as aids and out of wed lock pregnancy are a direct result of a breakdown in morality and this breakdown is due to a decline in the belief in God. The view that God created the moral law is often called the Ã¢â¬Å"Divine Command Theory of EthicsÃ¢â¬ According to this view is that what makes an action right is that God wills it to be done. All standards that we live by have consequences if not followed or adhered to. There is the fear of punishment. If we speed in our car we are given a ticket. If we God and Morality pg. 7 Sin our souls will spend eternity in hell. Heaven and Hell are often construed as the carrot and the stick that God dangles in front of to make us tow the line, to keep on the straight and narrow. Heaven is the reward and hell is the punishment. Would society be able to function correctly and morally if these rewards and punishments were not in plain view? We have lawmakers and peacekeepers all over the world to help make and enforce the laws so that people know there are consequences. Morals are no different. They help define a personÃ¢â¬â¢s goodness and worthiness of the ultimate reward, eternity in heaven. Moral standards without moral sanctions just simply do not mean much. Any person who thinks that it is sufficient to have relative standards that are based upon what groups or individuals feel is right or just cannot see a connection between God and morality. Moral principles such as donÃ¢â¬â¢t steal, donÃ¢â¬â¢t murder etc.must be objective and practiced by all putting aside any personal conflicts. When people accept moral principles without having a reason to they do not hold these principles as closely as someone who believes in God simply because there are no carrot or stick to hold them in place where they need to be, rather a personal belief or a mandated belief by societal rules in what is right or wrong If we recognize that God does exist than we recognize that God created the world and mankind in his own likeness. For this argument it makes sense to say that God controls the world which justifies ethical obligations. To deny GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence we God and Morality pg. 8 Are ethically obligated to what exactly? We typically learn morality from our parents and from those we love, we are conditioned to follow a morally righteous path in life, however to have such a standard of moral obligation can only be granted by God, binding every person and demanding such impeccable respect. By letting God into our lives we are accepting good instead of evil, we are consummating the fact that we are moral and ethical. By allowing GodÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings and praise into our lives we are promised a more enriching morally accepted life. My view prior to doing any research was that Yes! You can lead a moral life without having a belief in God. I was raised Catholic, I even went to Catholic school, however, I have questioned my own religion over the years and now I have turned my back on it. I do bring my children to church which allows them to draw their own conclusions about God. I want them to have that choice in life and of course I would never condemn them for believing in God. It is just my personal choice. I live in the Bible belt and I always get asked the question, Ã¢â¬Å"where do you go to church? Ã¢â¬ I typically tell them that I do not go to church, which is similar to having the plague. It is not that I am not a good person. I feel that I am. Any morals and values that I have my parents have instilled in me. I also believe that the Ã¢â¬Å"rulesÃ¢â¬ or commandments of God are simply a guide established at the time the bible was written to keep society in line. I absolutely agree with the fact of you do not have to believe in God to be moral. I make choices everyday and my choices are based on God and Morality pg. 9the things that I believe to be the best choice for the people I love, people I do not know and myself. I have never had any problems reaching out to help another person whether I knew them or not. I also feel that I go above and beyond at times helping others when I need to. Living a good moral life is a choice and I do it for no other reason than to be there for someone else. I do not do it for glory or self righteousness, or because someone is looking, I do it because for me it is all about treating others the way I wish to be treated. God and Morality pg. 10 References Baumin, S. (2008) Antitheism and Morality. Philosophical Forum retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://dx. doi. org/10. 111/j. 1467-9191. 2007. 00282. x Frame and Poythress. A debate between John Frame and Paul Kurtz. Do we Need God to be Moral? retrieved March 25,, 2013 from http:// poythress. org/do-we-need-god-to-be-moral/ Gert, Bernard. (2012) The Definition of Morality. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edward N. Zalto (ed. ), retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://plato. stanford. edu/archives/fall2012/entries/morality-definition. Merrill, K. R. (2012) Spectres of False Divinity:HumeÃ¢â¬â¢s Moral Atheism. Retrieved March 25, 2013 from http://search. proquest. com. proxy-library. ashford. edu/docview/1288432167. accountid=32521 Reich, R. B. (2013)The Morality Brigade retrieved March 27,2013 from http://baltimoresun. com/opinion/bal-the-morality-brigade-20130326,0,146487 God and Morality pg. 11 Schick, T. Jr. (1995)Morality Requires GodÃ¢â¬ ¦. or Does it? Retrieved March 25, 2013 from http://www. secular. humanism. org/index. php? section=librarypage=schick_17_3.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Experiment on Size, Shape and Structures of Aggregates Introduction Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have made considerable attention because of their unique features for conversion of free, unlimited solar energy into electricity by utilizing environmental friendly, inexpensive raw materials for low production cost1,2. DSSC composed of nanostructured, mesoporous semiconductors with wide-bandgap materials, to which the dye molecules (sensitizers) are adsorbed, a counter electrode and an electrolyte. In DSSC the dye molecule absorb visible light, and inject electron from photo-excited state of dye molecule to conduction band of semiconductor1,3 The performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell is mainly based on the structure of the visible light absorbing dye/ sensitizer. Applications of several natural carotenoid dyes with higher absorption coefficient in the visible region of the solar spectrum with higher conversion efficiency, is under investigations1,4. Carotenoids are C40 tertraterpenoid hydrocarbons consist of eight-C5 isoprene units5. The major characteristic feature of Car molecule is it comprises of extensive conjugated system of delocalized Ãâ¬-electrons which makes them highly hydrophobic molecules. Therefore when these carotenoid molecules are dissolved in hydrated solvents they tend to form aggregates since the molecule is hydrophobic in nature. The surface arrangements and the aggregation behavior of the sensitizers (carotenoids) on semiconductor nanoparticles is greatly influenced the performance of carotenoid based artificial photosystems such as DSSC. It was stated (Wang et al.2006) that formation of dye aggregates suppresses the performance of DSSC6 since the device performance is influencing the nanoscale morphology of the aggregates. Therefore several researchers have focussed on the nanoscale organization of molecular aggregation in solutions of these conjugated molecules at atomic level resolution. Interchain agg regation behavior of a conjugated polymer (DP10-PPV) which used in opto-electronic applications such as pohotovoltaics, dissolved in two solvents having different qualities at different concentrations were studied by (Chen et al. 2009) using Small angle neutron scattering (SANS), revealed that the internal conformational structure of these network aggregates were differ in different solvents. A similar study was also carried out by Chen and coworkers for another semirigid conjugated polymer (DP6-PPV) in solutions7,8. Moreover it has been reported that, when carotenoid molecules are deposited on the surface of semiconductor often it forms H-shape aggregates5. Aggregation phenomena of natural and artificially modified carotenoids were proved that J- and H-aggregates are the possible geometries9. Apart from the formation of self-assembled aggregates in hydrated solvents of these carotenoid molecules, there is strong relationship between the structural conformation and the composition o f molecules in the solution with the ability of aggregation5. Polar carotenoids consist of Ã¢â¬âOH (hydroxyl groups) in the carotenoid structure promotes the formation of aggregates compared to the molecules without any functional groups, (Simonyi et al. 2003). Furthermore the position of the functional group may also significantly affect the type of aggregates form10. It was observed experimentally for the first time (Cheng et al. 2009), the crossover from swollen coils in semidilute regime to unperturbed coil at high concentrations11 with the variation of polymer radius of Gyration (Rg) of poly(methyl methacrylate) in chloroform as a function of polymer concentration (Ã Ã¢â¬ ¢). Perahia et al. used SANS data12to investigate how molecular solutions of poly(2,5-dinonylparaphenylene ethynylene)s (PPE) aggregates into large flat clusters. Ratnaweera et al. 2012 and Lodge and coworkers were studied self-assembly modes of several block copolymers in selective solvents using SANS13 -15. Therefore the studies of dye aggregates are really essential for future developments of carotenoid based electrochemical devices for solar energy conversion. Spectroscopic studies on carotenoids in hydrated solvents revealed that the aggregation behavior of carotenoids is significantly affecting the S0 Ã¢â âS2 electronic transition16 of neutral carotenoids. Therefore the solvent quality is one of the major factors for carotenoid solutions which govern the size of the aggregate. When the carotenoid molecules are uniformly dissolved in a good solvent at low concentrations to form a homogeneous mixture, carotenoids are exist as isolated molecules that are very far from each other17. Therefore the interactions between monomers are very weaker than the monomer-solvent interactions and polymer tends to swells and its size is larger than the ideal size13,18. Cheng coworkers stated11 that in the good solvent domain (T > Ã ¸), the repulsions of excluded volume is greater which results Rg of the aggregates enhanced beyond its unperturbed size. Further this expansion effect is greater in dilute solutions since the volume fraction of polymer is very low compared to its overlapping concentration. When the concentration of the solution is increased, the attraction between monomers are stronger and the aggregates tried to collapses into globules wit h solvents inside it corresponds to a poor solvent. The size of the structural conformation of collapsed globule is smaller than the ideal chain17. For a polymer solution (NA = N and NB = 1) to be favorable for mixing or aggregation is depends on the Flory-Huggins equation which consist of two terms, the entropy and energy terms17. The energy change of binary mixing which depends on composition of the mixture is the main factor, for a polymer to be dissolved in a good solvent to make an equilibrium state of a homogeneous mixture of polymer solution. Entropy of mixing is small for polymer solutions and always positive hence promotes mixing, but the energy of mixing is either positive or negative which measures the attractive or repulsive interactions between species. The net attraction between species in the solution is important because it measure the value and the sign of the Flory interaction parameter (Ãâ¡) and hence to know whether the given mixture consist of single-phase or separated into phases. In this research the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data was used to investigate the quantitative experimental information on size, shape and structures of aggregates. Two carotenoid molecules, bixin and norbixin were selected in this study to characterize their structural information of monomeric and aggregated forms. The natural dyes, bixin and norbixin are belongs to the group of apo-carotenoids, extracted from annatto seeds of the Bixa orellana tree1. The chemical structures of cis-bixin (C25H30O4) and cis-norbixin (C24H28O4) is shown in fig. 1. (1) GÃ ³mez-OrtÃ z, N. M.; VÃ ¡zquez-Maldonado, I. A.; PÃ ©rez-Espadas, A. R.; Mena-RejÃ ³n, G. J.; Azamar-Barrios, J. A.; Oskam, G. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2010, 94, 40. (2) Zhou, H.; Wu, L.; Gao, Y.; Ma, T. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2011, 219, 188. (3) Xu, H.; Tao, X.; Wang, D.-T.; Zheng, Y.-Z.; Chen, J.-F. Electrochimica Acta 2010, 55, 2280. (4) Yamazaki, E.; Murayama, M.; Nishikawa, N.; Hashimoto, N.; Shoyama, M.; Kurita, O. Solar Energy 2007, 81, 512. (5) Landrum, J. T. Carotenoids : physical, chemical, and biological functions and properties; CRC Press: Boca Raton, 2010. (6) Wang, X.-F.; Koyama, Y.; Nagae, H.; Yamano, Y.; Ito, M.; Wada, Y. Chemical Physics Letters 2006, 420, 309. (7) Li, Y.-C.; Chen, K.-B.; Chen, H.-L.; Hsu, C.-S.; Tsao, C.-S.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, S.-A. Langmuir 2006, 22, 11009. (8) Li, Y.-C.; Chen, C.-Y.; Chang, Y.-X.; Chuang, P.-Y.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, H.-L.; Hsu, C.-S.; Ivanov, V. A.; Khalatur, P. G.; Chen, S.-A. Langmuir 2009, 25, 4668. (9) Auweter, H.; Benade, J.; Betterman, H.; Beutner, S.; KÃ ¶psel, C.; LÃ ¼ddecke, E.; Martin, H.; Mayer, B. Pigments in food technology. Sevilla: Dep Legal 1999, 197. (10) Simonyi, M.; Bikadi, Z.; Zsila, F.; Deli, J. Chirality 2003, 15, 680. (11) Cheng, G.; Graessley, W. W.; Melnichenko, Y. B. Physical Review Letters 2009, 102, 157801. (12) Perahia, D.; Traiphol, R.; Bunz, U. H. F. The Journal of Chemical Physics 2002, 117, 1827. (13) Ratnaweera, D. R.; Shrestha, U. M.; Osti, N.; Kuo, C.-M.; Clarson, S.; Littrell, K.; Perahia, D. Soft Matter 2012, 8, 2176. (14) Lodge, T. P.; Hamersky, M. W.; Hanley, K. J.; Huang, C.-I. Macromolecules 1997, 30, 6139. (15) Lodge, T. P.; Bang, J.; Park, M. J.; Char, K. Physical Review Letters 2004, 92, 145501. (16) Alwis, D. D. D. H.; Chandrika, U. G.; Jayaweera, P. M. Journal of Luminescence 2015, 158, 60. (17) Rubinstein, M.; Colby, R. Polymers Physics; Oxford, 2003. (18) Halperin, A. Journal de Physique 1988, 49, 547.
Abortion And The View Of Richard Selzer In his essay, What I Saw at the Abortion, Dr. Richard Selzer writes about his experience witnessing an abortion for the first time. Selzers article persuade readers from the side of pro-life point of view by using very powerful technique without includes anything that standing against pro-choice or effusively agreeing pro-life. His writing has neither fair nor biased in this article because it simply expresses how he witnessed a procedure of the pro-choice operation and let the readers feel how he had felt- a very powerful persuasive. Although, Selzers writing style is rubbing with a sandpaper on the readers mind at the beginning, his assertive tone and interesting language choosing in the article leads reader to the end without needing much of rhetorical tools. But he does use a rhetorical statement when he writes, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦is tugged, like a fishing line nibbled by a sunfish to visualize how the needle in the womans belly trembles. Even though this article needed more technical terms than as it is, Selzer minimizes those and gets the readers attention. When he uses the technical or biological terms, he explains what those are at once. For example he writes, prostaglandin- a substance found normally in the body.(3) or outpourings of disease-phlegm, pus, vomitus, (1) makes easy to understand and stay focus on article without needing of flipping pages of dictionary. Selzer makes his article easy to understanding. However, sometime he gives his readers to think what his expression is and that makes readers dissolve in his stand point. The statement, We are not six, I think. I think we are seven(2) gives rise to readers to think where the seventh person came from, then realize that the baby inside the womb is not just a fetus but it is another living human being. Sometime he unknowingly pushes the readers in the place of his characters feeling as one would take its own: it is not pain the she feels. It is more a recognition that the deed is being done. (1). Selzer knows like a wizard, what would be floating around on the readers head during the story goes. He shows that he knows what readers are thinking by, I know, I know. The thing is normally done at sixteen weeks. and explains the reason. He does not say that he stands on the pro-life viewpoint directly. But he indirectly states he is a pro-life in the middle of the article, where everyone in the operation room wants the jerked needle where it is. Six do then he count-off himself, No, five do.(2) Over all in his article, he is describing that he has witnessed a scene of murdering a helpless unborn baby who was defending for its life -as much as he or she could-inside the womb until effort away.(3) His emphasis in the introduction of the article, that he is a surgeon who have seen undesirable scene on daily basic, reinforces how that scene is so much painful for a person to watch. Abortion is termination of pregnancy by accidentally or a woman makes the decision to end by means of surgical procedure as states by Selzer. Abortion has been a social controversy since the procedure was invented, and has arisen since 1973 when the government legalized and over 3.5 million legal abortions have been reported in according with CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Communities are constantly debating over the pro-life or pro-choice and how many weeks of pregnancy is not to have the procedure preformed. A person believes in pro-life would say abortion is a murder because the moment of conception, the fetus is alive. On the other hand, a pro-choice person would feel that decision to abort pregnancy is solely to mothers and the government has no right to intervene. And a fetus doesnt become real human being until it is physically delivered from a mothers womb. Abortion is one of the most controversial topics of all times and yet, is still in the gray zone. In early societies before legalizing the abortion, unwanted children were often abandoned or even killed after they were born; or seeking back alley abortions which are usually located in an unhealthy area and done by unlicensed operators. Many of women died from infection and incompetent operator. We all know that abortion is demeans the value of human life in social and religion point of view, but what all the consequences would happened if the unwanted child to bring into the world? It is probably for the society to let the unwanted pregnancy to abort than have them be brought up poor and neglected or abused. That would not only for the child and mother to suffer throughout their life but also for the society. A child who is neglected or abused are higher probability to get in to crime, drug addiction, lifelong government aid recipients, etc. (Masserli). Do we want the child to left in that kind of miserable life? Do we want to add such burden to our over loaded society? Some people might say, If the mother cannot raise her child, she could be giving up the child for adoption. Giving up the child for adoption makes tremendous emotional effect, much more than aborts the baby inside the womb, to the mother for the rest of her life. We all make mistakes in our life, especially in teenage life. But sometime, one mistake can cause a whole life living with a big scar across the face. With lack of sex education or may be with peer pressures to have sex at an early age, could drain down the great life plan for a teenage girl. We shouldnt penalize someone for life for one mistake by holding pro-life agenda without justification. A blogger/ poet, Sandra Kay expresses how much emotionally and psychologically effects to be a pregnant teenager comparing with her own experience in her article A Pro-Choice Perspective, she writes, I can tell you-and I am not guessing, but I know-that without access to legal abortions, suicides will increase and women will resort to dangerous, life-threatening, self-inflicted abortions.(Kay) Although many people say a woman has to make ultimately her own decision whether to choose pro-choice or pro-life, when the situation arises, they should carefully consider both points of view to reduce the impact of regret in the future. Pregnancy is very difficult time for many people. Some are planned; most are unintentional, thus leaving the mother frustrated with a decision to make. The decision is a matter of life and death. If you think having abortion is murder, then letting suicides of pregnant woman will make DOUBLE murder!
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Money is both the nectar and poison of the human race. This fact has never been more applicable than to modern politics. Nearly all assets to a candidate for political office, such a media advertisements, travel expenses and campaign supplies rely on fiscal support. In an age when electronic media rules supreme, money has never been more important. Today, it has become necessary for political campaigns to pour massive amounts of funding into television, Internet, radio and print ads in order to run a competitive campaign. These ads are the most prominent form of communication between a candidate and the sovereigns, and therefore, a candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to use ads can not be inhibited. This correlation between money and politics has many unintended consequences, such as expanding the gap between fiscal classes, creating Ã¢â¬Å"professionalÃ¢â¬ politicians, and jeopardizing the equality of the electorate. Equality is the right to be judged by only your peers, to be given a fai r chance to experience life, liberty and to pursue happiness. Equality is giving the homeless as equal a voice as the wealthy. America was built on the firmly held belief that all citizens are equal, however, it is inevitable in any capitalistic society that class divisions will form. But the power of each class is controllable with legislation concerning campaign finance. The debate over how political campaigns should be financed culminated with the recent Supreme Court ruling on Citizens United v. Federal Election Committee, however many concerns still remain. On April 6th, 1972 a handful of CREEP staffers worked late alongside with the staff of the General George Olmstead bank in Washington DC (Smith 3). The staffers were tasked with depositing several millions of... ...eum.info/roman-empire/roman-republic-timeline.htm. Roman Empire, The. Roman Society. http://www.roman-empire.net/society/society.html. Smith, Rodney A. Money, Power & Elections: How Campaign Finance Reform Subverts American Democracy. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006. Smitha, Frank. Why did the Roman Empire Fall?. http://www.fsmitha.com/com/Rome.htm. Smith, Ronald. The Fall of the Roman Republic. Suite101.com. http://www.suite101.com/content/the-fall-of-the-roman-republic-a114405. Vital, Nick. The Roman Constitution. http://www.uah.edu/student_life/organizations/SAL/texts/misc/romancon.html. Walberg, Robert. How to buy into the oil boom. http://moneycentral.msn.com/content/P114413.asp. Washington Post. BP agrees to $20 billion fund for gulf oil spill claims. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/06/16/AR2010061602614.html.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Creating Letterheads with Microsoft Word What you will write under this heading is the equivalent of the feasibility study which looks at the existing business practice and the problems associated with it. You should describe in general terms what the new system should achieve and consider whether the existing system can be modified. Estimate the time scale for completing the project. Who is the "real" user? Graham Richardson owns a garage and is opening two more branches his letter headed paper is out of date so he needs to create a new letterhead with Microsoft word What is the current problem? You are about to open 2 more braches. The owners need new headed letters showing the details of all branches. The letters are also rather out of date so this is a perfect opportunity to update their image. I must include company name, logo, new addresses, telephone/fax umbers(s) and E-mail address. Why has this problem arisen? The problem has arisen because he has two more new branches opening and they are using old letter heads and thier images are old were they don't use computers much. What is the objective or user requirement for this project? They will need new letter heads and maybe some business cards. What are the different ways this problem could be solved? Send it to a printer or use desktop publishing What is the best way to solve the problem and why? The best way to solve the problem is by using Microsoft Word. Microsoft Word is the best word processor to use for letter heads. The disadvantage is the use of the paper. so to save money print one off and photocopy the rest. The advantages is you can save you work and edit the work without starting again and money so that you don't have to send it to the printer. What is your estimated time scale for implementation? 4 weeks ======= Objectives? =========== ÃË Save 70% of storage space by saving documents on a hard-drive and not having to photocopy everything and file it away. =================================================================== ÃË Start sacking people because you won't need them anymore. =========================================================== ÃË To start using E-mail because it is quicker and you can add documents and pictures and it's a lot more reliable. This will save money as well. ÃË ANALYSE ========= The purpose of this stage is to break the problem down into small parts and to plan each part in detail so you have all the information you need ready to move on to the design stage. What information do I need to gather and where will it come from? I will need to gather contact details, to design a logo and make an
Thursday, July 18, 2019
This essay will examine the factors that led to Napoleon and his enormous army retreating from Russia and eventually losing a great majority of soldiers as well as their notoriety of being Ã¢â¬Å"invincibleÃ¢â¬ after invading Russia in 1812. It will also consider the effects that that particular war had on the downfall of NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s empire in the subsequent years. The Campaign of 1812 was to be NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s crowning achievement. His Grand Armee of over 600,000 men from all corners of his empire was the largest he had ever assembled. The Emperor of France was notorious to his enemies. His armies were said to be invincible and his tactics in battle were second to none. This was at least how he was perceived at the time. On the 23rd of June, 1812 he invaded Russia with the hopes of ultimately dominating Europe. Napoleon did not anticipate, however, the harsh Russian weather that they had to face coupled with the scorched-earth policy that the Russians employed. He also overlooked the resolve of Tsar Alexander in that the Russian Tsar would not surrender to Napoleon under any circumstances. Napoleon was also fighting a losing battle within himself. His age was beginning to get the better of him and his unwavering confidence in himself blinded him from making correct decisions. The campaign of 1812 was a disaster for Napoleon. Worse than the loss of over 500,000 men in Russia was the realization of FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s enemies that Napoleon was no longer the Ã¢â¬ËInvincibleÃ¢â¬â¢ conqueror that he was. NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s Russian campaign failed due to the culmination of these various factors, but above all, it was Napoleons faulty judgment and unwavering confidence in himself that led to his demise. Furthermore, this great defeat exposed NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s weakness to his enemies and as a result his reign as emperor came to an end. The weather was a worthy opponent to Napoleon and his Grand Armee during his campaign in Russia. However, casualties could have been prevented if Napoleon prepared properly for this grand campaign. Russia experiences extremely cold winters that arrive rapidly. It also gets very hot in the summer months. At the start of NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign his army experienced very hot weather. As the campaign entered July the heat became unbearable. Napoleon and many of his men were struck with diseases.  Napoleon was losing soldiers to exhaustion, sickness and desertion at a rate of 5,000 per day. It is reported that after two months, without even fighting a battle Napoleon had lost 150,000 soldiers.  General Clausewitz wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"The bad water and the air-borne insects caused dysentery, typhus, and diarrhea. Ã¢â¬Å" However, if Napoleon had planned to bring more doctors and medicine with him then many thousands of lives would have been saved. I believe this is NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s first in a series of mistakes that stems from faulty planning. NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s army suffered even worse during their retreat from Moscow. The soldiers were shattered by the bitter cold of the harsh Russian winter. Again, Napoleon had not planned properly for this. In fact, he had not even planned that he would be in Russia during the winter, another fatal mistake. Napoleon proclaimed before the campaign began that he expected it to last 20 days.  And according to another source he prepared 40 days worth of food for his army.  Either way this gross miscalculation by Napoleon in the preparation stages of his campaign. It is evident that Napoleon did not thoroughly plan for the Russian campaign, nor did he make the correct calculations that would ensure a decisive victory. I think that this is due to his slowly deteriorating heath as well as NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s overconfidence and irrational belief that he could not be defeated. It seemed as though Napoleon failed to display his true genius in 1812 that had won him countless battles in the past. He displayed much caution, which was uncharacteristic of his once vigorous and dominating demeanour. It is still unclear whether this was due to his illness at the start of the campaign or a more deeply-seated issue in NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s age and irrational beliefs. This is what Napoleon said on the subject of his own health: Ã¢â¬Å"Health is indispensable in warÃ¢â¬ ; and, a few years later :Ã¢â¬ There is but one season for war; I shall be fit for it six years longer, and then I shall myself be obliged to stop. Ã¢â¬ He had passed the limit set by himself when the highest efficiency could be expected.  Ã¢â¬Å"Napoleon was 42 years of age in 1812 and clearly his best years as a youthful and energetic leader were behind him. As he entered into this midlife crisis he became more restless and he wanted to fully control Europe before he grew too old to do so. Napoleon also maintained this sense of destiny, he found it incredible that others even tried to oppose his strength. Ã¢â¬Å"Russia is now being led to her fate, let her destiny be fulfilled! Ã¢â¬Å" This quote is evidence to the claim that Napoleon allowed his ego to get the better of his judgement. In NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, it was godÃ¢â¬â¢s will for him to crush Russia and seize control of Europe. It was impossible for him to lose this campaign against Russia, especially with the greatest army the world had ever seen at his disposal. With such a tremendous force Napoleon overlooked the finer details of the campaign that were essential to assuring its success. Another factor that greatly contributed to the failure of NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s 1812 campaign was the tactics that the Russians employed to deter his Grand Armee. The Russians would retreat deeper inland as soon as they saw the Grand Armee approaching, which worked to exhaust their enemy. The Russians had no choice but to retreat when they saw NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s massive approaching army. As a result of this, the Grand Armee suffered.  It is unclear whether the Russians retreated as they were aware that facing the enormous invading force was suicidal or they did it on purpose in order to intentionally tire out the enemy. Either way, the retreat worked wonders against NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s Army. A French General said this: Ã¢â¬Å"We (the French cavalry) deploy, and boldly advance to the attack, and already reach their line; but they disappear like a dream and we see only the bare pines and birch trees. An hour later, when we have begun to feed our horses, the dark line of Cossacks again appears on the horizon, and we are again threatened with an onslaught. We repeat the same manoeuvre, and, as before, our operations are not attended with success. Thus one of the best and bravest cavalry forces the world has ever seen was tired out and disorganised by those whom it considered unworthy foes, but who were the real saviours of their country. Ã¢â¬Å" As the Russians retreated, they gained in strength, and exhausted the resources of country on the path that was to be trailed by the invaders. This has come to be known as the Ã¢â¬Ëscorched earth policy. Ã¢â¬â¢ This strategy was designed to deplete the enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s resources so that they may only survive on the provisions that they brought along with them. The Russians burned their own countryside as they fell back. Napoleon did not anticipate the use of this tactic. It was greatly effective in depleting the numbers of the Grand Armee by starving the enemy. The Russians were determined to defend their country from almost certain defeat. They fought knowing that their entire country was relying on them to keep it from falling into NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s hands. This incentive and confidence in battle that the Russians had was also not anticipated by the French Emperor. He expected the Russians to roll over and be crushed as he had done in previous campaigns. Also to his horror he found that the discipline in his own ranks was slowly fadingÃ¢â¬ ¦ As previously stated, Napoleon had amassed his army from all corners of his empire. Among the French there were Germans, Italians, Poles, Spaniards, Portuguese, Swiss and Croatians. Even though the numbers of this army were staggering, their cohesion as a unit was compromised due to the simple fact that they were all from different countries. This mixture of languages and cultures, although very large and well organized, made efficiency and discipline an issue for Napoleon. Also, only the French troops were the ones who were well equipped and well trained, they were inspired to fight under their beloved Emperor. The same cannot be said of the rest of the troops.  The foreigners were fighting because they had no choice, they were allies to Napoleon but they shared no special bond with him, nor were they particularly motivated to be fighting in his name and in the name of France. This was another key factor that played a large role in the dismantling of the army during NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s retreat form Moscow. Napoleon also failed to realize that the Tsar Alexander would not surrender as easily as he thought. Napoleon thought that after a handful of decisive victories the Tsar would agree peace terms and Napoleon would have his way. He also mistakenly thought that if he were to occupy the Russian capital of Moscow then the country would be at his mercy. Ã¢â¬Å"A Single blow delivered at the heart of the Russian Empire, at Moscow the holy, will instantly put this whole blind, apathetic mass at my mercy.  Napoleon, despite having extensive relations with Tsar Alexander had underestimated his character. The TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s resolve was strong and unwavering in his decision to not accept terms of peace with Napoleon. He did not even respond to Napoleon, even though the French Emperor now occupied the capital city.  It is important to note that as the Grand Arme e entered into Moscow it was in flames, set ablaze by the Russians themselves in accordance with their scorched earth policy. This denied NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s men the provisions and plunder that they so desired and had been promised. The occupants had fled to the countryside and the city was left deserted and up in flames. Napoleon had again been bested by the Russians. His army was now 1/5th of what it was. Two of my sources hold very different views when it comes to the morale of NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s men at this time. One maintains that the officers maintained their confidence in Napoleon while the troops, although not happy with the fact that they had no provisions Ã¢â¬Å"retained their thoughtlessnessÃ¢â¬ and were still content under the EmperorÃ¢â¬â¢s guidance.  The other source depicts more of a sense of disillusionment within the ranks. The fires by which the place was devastated reacted on the discipline of the troops. The men abandoned themselves to disorder, and marauding did not cease until the Emperor took stringent measures to restore discipline. Ã¢â¬  Napoleon was left with a dilemma to ponder. He could either continue the campaign and make a final push to defeat the weakened enemy with the disgruntled and famished troops that he had left or he could quickly retreat and leave Russia knowing that he had been outmanoeuvred by his enemy. Napoleon took a third option. He waited for word from Tsar Alexander. He was optimistic that the Tsar would sign a peace agreement. Napoleon was unaware of the fact that Alexander could not possibly surrender, it was his duty as Tsar to never accept terms. This led to Napoleon hesitating in Moscow for five weeks. With no word from Alexander and winter fast approaching. A decision needed to be made quickly. Napoleon gave the order to retreat and they marched out of Moscow on the 19th of October.  This hesitation from Napoleon would soon come back to bite them. Napoleon lingered in Moscow for far too long. His stay should not have exceeded two weeks and he should have retreated in September. By hesitating so long he brought about the horrors that would face him and what was left of his army in the following weeks. Three weeks after Napoleon and his army exited Moscow the winter emerged. As they marched westward the cold gradually increased until it became almost unbearable. As the temperature dropped to -20 degrees the retreating soldiers began dropping like flies from starvation, disease and the bitter cold. Discipline declined. The famished soldiers no longer did what they were told. They had no honour left to do battle, instead the main goal of every soldier was to stay alive. Men fought over food supplies and clothes. Some abandoned the unit in search of provisions elsewhere. The army was no longer a fighting force.  This, however was not the retreating armyÃ¢â¬â¢s only problem. The Cossacks attacked the army from all flanks, they were vicious and relentless to NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s army, and they showed no mercy to anyone who fell behind the main unit. 17] NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s army was slowly fading away, little by little each day. Napoleon even wore a vial of poison around his neck in the event of him being captured. Less than 90,000 soldiers escaped Russia even after Napoleon had abandoned what was left of his army when he heard of a coup developing in Paris. The campaign in Russian was colossal failure. With what looked like a sure victory for Napoleon at the start of the campaign ended in shambles. Napoleon was outwitted and undone by the tactics of the Russians. Something Napoleon did not consider possible. NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to understand that the Russians would fight with such desperation to defend their motherland was a costly mistake. Napoleon greatly underestimated his enemy, as well as the amount of necessary provisions to feed such a massive force as the Grand Armee. Everything seemed to conspire against Napoleon in the Russian campaign and in some respects he was hopelessly unlucky. His belief in himself and his army was so great, his Ã¢â¬ËstarÃ¢â¬â¢ so bright that he became blinded. He failed to think through the battle plan thoroughly enough and the result was a great failure. This failure did not go unnoticed by the rest of Europe. After it became obvious that Napoleon had lost with such a large army at his disposal Britain, Russia, Prussia and Sweden decided to strike Napoleon when he appeared weakest. His reputation as an invincible conqueror took a massive hit. The rest of Europe realized that it was possible to defeat Napoleon. Napoloen was able to rally another army to defend his empire from the forces that were now conspiring against him but it was too late, the initial damage had been done through the Russian campaign and NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s empire would never again ascend to what it once was prior to the campaign of 1812.
Currently the air duct industry as a whole seems to be on the road of recoery. We, the Statesn skyways, the one-quarter largest aircraft carrier recently avoided bankruptcy, but had a summer full of pressure c anyable to ongoing union struggles and questionable decision maker compensation packages. After having incurred such plentiful losses, this recovery has come about because of the judicature bailout and many of our large competitors abilities to survive the convulsion in the industry. So far, the prospects calculate promising. tax revenue has repaird across all regions of the agate line. national unit revenue was up well-nigh 10 percentage and Latin American revenue has increased by finish to 11 percent in the utmost(a) quarter of 2012 compared to the same period the prior(prenominal) year. We are performing correct than other(a) airlines that have filed for protection and have make so without slashing capacity.In short, American is doing the right things to return to business expertness and guest effectiveness. In companionship to apply a sustainable position for the future, American Airlines moldiness adopt a three-pronged outline moving forward. First, we should center on on subaltern equipment casualtyd operations and increased merchandise strategies to remedy guest collect. We have to enhance client experience and our volume of loyal customers to pull in a stronger presence in Airline Industry. Second, we must focus on increase and improving the routes to cater to large customer base. Lastly, we must address the difficulties our company ability face in integrating with the shade of US Airlines. Our future success is super dependent on these two entities efficiently operating as a hit organization.Industry AnalysisCurrent positioningUS Airline industry instantly is dominated by five study domesticated carriers. United, Delta and southmostwest each has to a greater extent than than 15 percent market share . American is fourth, with around 12 percent and US Airways is fifth with around 10 percent. quatern of these five are profitable all but American. We lost $2 cardinal in 2011 and $1.7 cardinal in the low quarter of 2012.Future StrategyOur accent in 2013 is on available flexibility, multinational growth finished alliance and discriminating network expansion, and domestic casenerships to reduce operational and ease sheet risks. Americans market distinction is based on emphasizing and meeting the needs and expectations of higher(prenominal)(prenominal)school assess customers ( peculiarly large global corporates) and better alignment with the one institution airline network and value proposition. Also, being the take on carrier between non plainly the United States and Latin America but, increasingly, the world and Latin Americaconnecting through Dallas, Los Angeles, or Miami. This dodging makes sense if they can produce all labor work groups on board, they shoul d be able to make it happen. That is soothe the main challenge, as is competitor contestation, particularly from larger traditional rivals akin Delta and United. break guest DemandLower usable CostsAmerican passenger course of study which already has 57 fewer jut outes in service than an year ago, should elevate bound by another 57 planes this summer. This would improve operational efficiency. Current service levels take 275 cities with a fleet of over kelvin aircraft. American carries about 80 meg passengers daily and receives more than than 329,000 reservation calls, handles more than 293,000 pieces of luggage and flies more than 4300 flights in one typical day. In order to reduce costs shape up over 27000 jobs give have to be eliminated. Because of high competition in the industry, substantial price fluctuations occur related to fares.Enhance Customer Base growth value added go offered through our interactive website, AA.com. Any differentiation that convenience a dded capabilities offer is the center of focus. occupy hiub systems and schedule patterns need to be looked at to improve efficiency and routing effectiveness, thereby enhancing customer experience. We need to do rigorous marketing to attract more customers. Our marketing is currently focused on seasonal and business travellingers and much analysis is taken in order to optimize peak travel seasons as well as shop flier miles programs and pints systems. The Making More dwell in coach program is the pilot marketing ploy of American to stun off a perception of higher passenger comfort levels. As increased denote and intense market share is gained, we will continue to remain a signalise player assuming passenger demand goes up as projected. We will focus on upgraded in-flight entertainment systems, football jeopardize special fares, and buy-on board meal options to further enhance customer experience.Improve earningsAmerican Airlines new network strategy is designed to impro ve profitability by offering the routes and schedules that attract and retain not only their own high value customers but also those of alliance partners, an consequential source of revenue through codeshare agreements and virtually aligned loyalty programs. The network is the marrow crossway that works in concert with lie-flat seats, onboard amenities, and customer service. Latin America is a prominent focus, due in part to our strong presence in come upon hubs to Latin America such as Dallas and Miami. This is where the profits are. Passenger growth forecasts for Latin America for 2013-17 are 6 percent for Latin America North (Central America and the northern rim of South America) and 8 percent for Latin America South (southern cone countries such as brazil and Argentina). This compares with 3.6 percent for Europe and 4.4 percent for Asia.Increase International RoutesTo follow the growth markets, we must neuter our portfolio mix to focus more on international rather than do mestic routes. This is a gradual process, moving from 38 percent international and 62 percent domestic capacity in 2013 towards a 44/56 percent balance by 2017. As we refocus more of our flying towards international opportunities, it is likely to look towards increased code-sharing with domestic carriers like Alaska Airlines, jetBlue, and others to further enhance our network in places like Los Angeles and New York City. This is likely to have initial teething problems, due to terminal colocation and product disparity issues. For instance, the business passengers that we are act may be disgruntled by jetBlues more restrictive carry-on luggage policies or by extra meter and added security checks if they are required to change terminals.Refurbish domestic feedOur plan is also to diversify our domestic feed by increasing the number of regional carriers with which we do business to reduce operational and balance sheet risk. Today, we primarily get a feed from our wholly-owned subsidi ary, American Eagle, which has higher costs than some other regional carriers. American Eagle is going through its own restructuring to lower its costs, and it may at long last be spun off.Synergies with US AirlinesMerger with US Airways will result in the largest carrier in US. It would create roughly $1.2 billion in financial benefits.