Sunday, April 7, 2019
Theory Building Essay Example for Free
Theory Building EssaySome of the theories utilise to explain dissentent aspects of organizational management include Maslows Hierarchical Theory of Needs and Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory. According to Maslows guess physio sensible needs supervene psychological needs. Maslows theory states that certain needs which are inborn internal motivations influence the decisions made by man-to-mans (Landy Conte, 2006, p.335).His theory allowed for the milieu to play a significant role in motivated behavior by suggesting that once a determined of needs are satisfied by environmental forces, the next higher needs are activated in an undivided. As opposed to Maslows theory, Freud places emphasis on the role of an individuals mind specifically his unconscious mind in the determination of an individuals motivation. Within Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory, an individuals unconscious desires determine his motivations. Both theories can be utilise to explain the motivations behind individual s actions and decisions within the field of business.How do propositions and hypotheses differ?According to Zikmund (1988) a proposition is a rumor concerned with the transactionhip among concepts. It is an assertion of a universal connection between types that have certain properties (p. 44). As opposed to this, a hypothesis is an unproven proposition or supposition that tentatively explains certain facts or phenomena.It is a proposition that is existentially testable (Zikmund, 1988, p.45). The main difference between the two may be apparitiond to the fact-finding use of a hypothesis as the hypothesis is apply to investigate and test a claim. It is in-chief(postnominal) to note that the hypothesis itself is a proposition the difference of a hypothesis from other propositions merely lies in its use to verify or falsify a claim. Given this context nonpareil might thereby state that although a hypothesis is a proposition not all propositions are hypotheses.How do concepts dif fer from variables?According to Zikmund (1988) a concept refers to a generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or process that have been given a name (p. 41). As opposed to this, a variable is a concept whose tax stirs from subject to case (Macionis Plummer, 2005, p.51). Consider for example the concept price wherein price refers to the value of an object.Within the context of the department store, the price of different objects differ from from each one other due to the differences of the factors used in determining the value of an object. In addition to this although some concepts may correspond to a set of empirical measures, not all concepts do as opposed to variables that may correspond to two or more values.Comment on this statement There is nothing as interoperable as a strong theory.A theory refers to a retentive set of general propositions used to explain the seeming relationships among certain observed phenomena (Zikmund, 1988, p.41). The ories are important as they provide a framework for the analysis of a particular event. A theory may thereby provide an individual with the necessary assumptions that may trace the reason for the occurrence of a particular event. In a sense, one might state that it provides an individual with the causal explanation on how an event q was caused by an event p.It is necessary however that the theory used for the explanation is a good theory. A good theory here refers to a theory whose empirical content is less than or equal to the logical content (Boland, 1989, p.56). Such is the characteristic of a good theory since it ensures that the theory is empirically verifiable and hence testable. Given this context, there is nothing as practical as a good theory since it ensures that ones explanations for the occurrence of a particular event is continuously verifiable and hence testable and thereby easily proven to be valid easily.The 17th-century Dutch philosopher benedick Spinoza said, If th e facts affair with a theory, either the theory must be swopd or the facts.According to Spinoza, when facts conflict with a theory there is a necessity to either change the theory or change the facts in order to ensure the theorys validity. A theory is either formulated by means of the use of inductive reasoning or deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning refers to the logical process of deriving a conclusion about a specific instance based on a cognise general premise or something known to be true (Zikmund, 1988, p. 46).Inductive reasoning, on the other hand, refers to the the logical process of establishing a general proposition on the basis of observation of particular facts (Zikmund, 1988, p.47). In the case of a theory formulated using a deductive argument, there is a need to mensurate the validity of propositions facts in order to ensure the validity and soundness of the argument. In the case of inductive arguments, the change or addition of a proposition facts changes th e conclusion thereby leading to the change of the theory itself. regulate another definition of theory. How is the definition you found similar to this books definition? How is it different?Kerlinger (1979) defines a theory as a set of interrelated constructs (variables), definitions, and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomenon by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining natural phenomena (qtd in Creswell, 2002, p. 120). As opposed to this Zikmund (1988) defines a theory as a coherent set of general propositions used to explain the apparent relationships among certain observed phenomena (p.41).As can be seen above, both definitions note that a theory is composed of more abstract components in the form of propositions wherein each proposition is interrelated in such a way that when combined together they formulate one coherent and systematic worldview. The difference of Kerlingers definition however may be traced to his addition of what a theory is trying to explain that being natural phenomena. Hence, Zikmunds definition may be seen as presenting a broad definition of a theory whereas Kerlinger narrows his definition by stating what a theory refers to.ReferencesBoland, L. (1989). The methodology of Economic Model Building mannerology After Samuelson. London Routledge.Creswell, J. (2002). Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches. London SAGE.Landy, F. J. Conte. (2006). Work in the 21st Century An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology. London Routledge.Macionis, J. K. Plummer. (2005). Sociology A Global Introduction. Np Pearson.Zikmund, W. (1988). Business Research Methods. California University of California Press.