Wednesday, January 30, 2019
Audit program design part ii Essay
With the exception of cash bargains, every movement and amount is in the end included in i of two balance sheet accounts, accounts due or each(prenominal)owance for tough accounts. There atomic number 18 eight headache functions for the sales and assembly cycle. The first 4 processes ar for recording sales, patch every other class of minutes includes only one transmission line function. The four sales transaction functions be necessary for getting the goods into the pass of customers, correctly post-horseing them, and reflecting the in variantation in the accounting records. The remaining four functions involve the collection and recording of cash, sales returns and allowances, write-off of uncollectible accounts, and providing for gloomy debt spending.Classes of movementsBusiness Functions pull in revenueProcessing customer gildsGranting credit entryShipping goodsBilling customers and recording sales silver ReceiptsProcessing and recording cash receipts sale s returns and allowancesProcessing and recording sales returns and allowances set down of uncollectible accountsWriting off uncollectible accounts receivable Bad debt expenseProviding for dreadful debts(Arens, 2012, p.443)The anxiety of bear witnessing for sales is as follows Customer orders Shipping Documents Duplicate Sales placards Sales Journals and General Ledger. (Arens, 2012, p. 455)Tests of ControlsFor each control, there should be at least one test of control, but there can be more than one. We impart gather evidence for internal controls by Documentation honoring Inquiries of the client and Re- setance. The tests stimulate audit evidence that support the common assertions for the cable cycle population and Occurrence to ensure that sales be save for shipments to genuine customersCompleteness All existing sales transaction ar put downAccuracy to ensure that amounts of sales for quantities shipped is recorded and billed accurately, is summarized appropriately and is traceable to accounts receivables master tearPresentation and disclosure/ Classification Sales transaction are appropriately classified andCut-Off The sales are recorded in the accounting period in which these were incurred.We propose the followers tests of controls for Sales and Collections question of purchase orders from customers for evidence of customer approval Inspection of sales bankers bill for supporting documentation Tracing Sale invoice figures to bill of warhead and customer order Inspection of batch control burden for initials of info control clerk au thusticating sign offFollow up on the sequential pattern of Shipping documents Examination of file for batch totals and initials of info control clerk Inspect the internal verification documentation share and Re-perform reconciliation of customer debtors master file totals to general ledger balance. solid Tests of TransactionsFor each transaction, there should be at least one substantive test, but there ca n be more than one. We will gather evidence for internal controls by Documentation Inquiries of the client Re-performance and Recalculation. The tests create audit evidence that support the common assertions for the patronage cycle Existence and Occurrence, Completeness, Accuracy, Presentation and disclosure/ Classification, and Cutoff. We propose the following substantive tests of transactions for Sales and Collections Ensure that the sales invoices are serially numberedReview master file and sales journal for unusual transactions and abnormally high or low amountsTrace the s international angstromerele of selected sales journal entries to its supporting documents uniform , bill of lading and sales order inter alia , also embarrass duplicate sales invoice issued (if any)Trace information as per fare documents to the sales journal Trace sales journal ledger entries to sale invoices on sample basis Verify amounts on the sale invoice by re-computing price and extension on the sam eTrace amounts of sales from Sale invoices to customer orders, sale order and shipping documents like bill of lading etc. andTrace selected invoices from journal to the Trade debtors master file and test amount, date, and invoice number for valuation and cut off.Analytical ProceduresBecause analytic procedures are substantive tests, they reduce the extent to which the auditor needs to perform detailed tests of balances, if the analytical procedure results are favorable. Our audit team performs analytical procedures for the entire sales and collection cycle, not just accounts receivable. When we perform analytical procedures for sales, we obtain evidence about both sales and accounts receivable. We propose the following analytical procedures for Sales and CollectionsAnalytical Procedure Possible Mis line of reasoning study gross margin percentage with introductory enlargement or understatement of sales age (by product line). and accounts receivable. differentiate sales by month ( by product line) hyperbole or understatement of sales over m. and accounts receivable.Compare sales returns and allowances as a magnification or understatement of sales percentage of gross sales with former yrs returns and allowances and accounts (by product line). receivable.Compare individual customer balances over a Misstatements in accounts receivable and stated amount with previous years. related income statement accounts.Compare bad debt expense as a percentage of invalid accounts receivable that have gross sales with previous years. not been provided for.Compare number of days that accounts Overstatement or understatement of receivable are heavy(p) with previous years allowance for uncollectible accounts and and related turnover of accounts receivable. bad debt expense also may repoint fictitious accounts receivable.Compare develop categories as a percentage of Overstatement or understatement of accounts receivable with previous years. allowance for uncollectible acc ounts and bad debt expense.Compare allowance for uncollectible accounts Overstatement or understatement of as a percentage of accounts receivable with allowance for uncollectible accounts and previous years. bad debt expense.Compare write-off of uncollectible accounts as Overstatement or understatement of a percentage of total accounts receivable with allowance for uncollectible accounts and previous years. bad debt expense.(Arens, 2012, p. 524)Payroll and Personnel CycleThe force out and paysheet cycle of Apollo Shoes Inc. must be audited with the inclusion of tests of controls, substantive tests of transactions, and analytical procedures. Tests of account balance details are not carryd considering the balance sheet accounts regarding payroll are not of a material nature (Arens, Elder, & Beasley, 2012). Transactions within the payroll cycle have the electric potential for materiality and are therefore far more important when invention the audit program.Test of ControlsInte rnal control over the payroll and personnel cycle is significant to the accuracy of each payroll transaction. In order to properly test controls regarding each of the audit objectives listed above the design for test of controls includes several review and examination factors, as well as tidings with employees.Substantive Test of TransactionsTests of transactions may happen during the interrogation or internal control or may happen aft(prenominal) the internal control has been tested depending on the most efficient elan to conduct the audit program. Tests of transactions for the personnel and payroll cycle are of high importance because of the volume of transactions through and throughout the accounting period. Transaction testing allows for identification of irregularities and potential misstatements in payroll. Apollo Shoes Inc. uses an internal form known as a happen upon inhabitation sheet that indicate gross pay, each deduction, net pay, and year to date totals for each e mployee (Louwers & Reynolds, 2007). Examination and affinity of this form, the corresponding payroll register, and the corresponding canceled checks will oblige up a large portion of the tests of transactions.1.Compare canceled checks with payroll register2.Compare canceled checks with take home sheets3.Compare payroll change documents to payroll employee files 4.Recalculate register entries and take home sheets5.Recalculate hours worked from time records (Arens, et al., 2012) 6.Compare payroll register and take home sheets with vouchers paid 7.Examine employee records for all unclaimed checks8.Compare paid register and vouchers with master payroll file 9.Examine time cards and time clockAnalytical ProceduresAnalytical procedures as a part of the audit program allow for the relatively quick comparison of specific account details that may lead to identifying possible misstatements that require additional detailed testing (Arens, et al., 2012). Analytical procedures involve the u se of contemporary and historical information to make comparisons. If the comparison result differs from the expected so additional testing will be necessary.Compare salary expenses to those from utmost year in order to go under if the expected increase in salary expense is reasonable (Louwers & Reynolds, 2007).Compare total payroll expense to previous years accounting for pay and volume increases to pass water whether or not there are misstatements in payroll expenses (Arens, et al., 2012).Compare sales to last year and review these in order to follow if the changes in payroll and sales are relative from one year to the side by side(p). Increased sales with a decrease in payroll for example may indicate a misstatement.Compare payroll tax expense as a percentage of salaries and wages to previous years to determine potential misstatements in payroll tax expense (Arens, et al., 2012).Review executive director salaries and determine if they correspond to the salaries authori zed in the board minutes (Louwers & Reynolds, 2007).Acquisition and Payment CycleWith the acquisition and payment cycle, there are three main transactions in this cycle, which entail Attainment of merchandises and amenities, silver distribution, and purchase returns, andAllowances and buying reductions.The first perspicacity determination is to check for initiation by confirming that acquisition demand, purchase order, receiving report, payment transactions and merchandiser statements are attached to the coupon.It needs to be confirmed that the level of credit authorization is accurate, entrance of acquisitions are from approved merchandisers only, and that each transactions are appropriate. Then the, papers are studied for existence, merchants are certified, and payable records are reviewed for uncommon accounts. The fixed assets that are attained are observed too.The next audit goal is to check control for extensiveness by testing that the transactions are renumbered and i n sequence order. Transactions are outlined to coupons and journals. additionally is to assess controls for correctness by validating that the calculations are accurate and are associated to summary reports.The journals and reports are paralleled for correctness. The goal of the assessment is to check controls for arrangement by validating account grouping and inspecting the chart of accounts and processes by linking the grouping through the chart of accounts as they mention to the merchants statement.The audit goal is to assess the controls for timing by validating periods and observing and witnessing unrecorded merchant statements and transactions. These are confirmed on the inside. The dates of acquiring these reports and statement are then paralleled with dates of acquirement and payment transactions.The assessment platform is intended to let the business to comprehend how the auditors will be testing internal controls. This sequence of exams and organized processes are intend ed to demonstrate the worth and rationality of the sales and collection cycle, payroll and personnel cycle, and acquisition and payment cycle.The exams center on existence, wholeness, and correctness. in one case the exams are done, we will have a better indication on how to continue with the remainder of the assessment. It will help to regulate how long the assessment might be and what the price could be.ReferencesArens, A. A., Elder, R.J., & Beasley, M.S. (2012). Auditing and assurance services An incorporate approach (14th Ed.). raw(a) York, New York Pearson.Louwers, T. J., & Reynolds, J. K. (2007). Apollo Shoes Casebook. New York, New York McGraw-Hill.
Tuesday, January 29, 2019
Lab 5 Cellular Respiration
Lab 5cellular airing Introduction Cellular cellular ventilation system is an ATP-producing catabolic process in which the ultimate electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule, much(prenominal) as group O. It is the release of energy from organic compounds by metabolic chemical oxidation in the mitochondria within from each one cell. Carbohyd ordains, proteins, and fats can alone be metabolized as fuel, but cellular internal respiration is most oft sequences described as the oxidation of glucose, as follows C6H12O6 + 6O2 6 vitamin C dioxide + 6H2O + 686 kilocalories of energy/mole of glucose oxidize Cellular respiration involves glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain.Glycolysis is a catabolic roadway that occurs in the cytosol and partiall(a)y oxidizes glucose into twopyruvate (3-C). The Krebs cycle is besides a catabolic way that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix and completes glucose oxidation by breaking down apyruvate derivative (Acetyl-CoA) into carbon dioxide. These two cycles two produce a blue get of ATP by subst stray-level phosphorylation and NADH by transferring electrons from substrate to NAD+ (Krebs cycle also produces FADH2 by transferring electrons to FAD).The electron transport chain is located at the privileged membrane of the mitochondrion, accepts energized electrons from trim down coenzymes that argon harvested during glycolysis and Krebs cycle, and couples this exergonic slide of electrons to ATP synthesis or oxidative phosphorylation. This process produces 90% of the ATP. Cells respond to changing metabolic unavoidably by misrepresentling reaction rates. Anabolic pathways atomic number 18 switched off when their products ar in ample supply. The most common mechanism of control is feedback inhibition.Catabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, atomic number 18 controlled by regulating enzyme activity at strategic points. A key control point of catabolism is the third mensurat ion of glycolysis, which is catalyzed by an allosteric enzyme, phosphofructokinase. The ratio of ATP to ADP and angstrom unit reflects the energy posture of the cell, and phosphofructokinase is sensitive to tacks in this ratio. Citrate and ATP are allosteric inhibitors of phosphofructokinase, so when their minginess rise, the enzyme slows glycolysis.As the rate of glycolysis slows, the Krebs cycle also slows since the supply of Acetyl-CoA is lessen. This synchronizes the rates of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. ADP and AMP are allosteric activators for phosphofructokinase, so when their concentrations relative to ATP rise, the enzyme speeds up glycolysis, which speeds of the Krebs cycle. Cellular respiration is measure in three modal values the intake of O2 (how more moles of O2 are duped in cellular respiration? ), production of CO2 (how many moles of CO2 are produced in cellular respiration? , and the release of energy during cellular respiration. PV = nRT is the locution for the inert gas law, where P is the contract of the gas, V is the mass of the gas, n is the even offt of molecules of gas, R is the gas constant, and T is the temperature of the gas in degrees K. This law implies several classic things ab off gases. If temperature and pressure are unplowed constant then the spate of the gas is calculately proportional to the number of molecules of the gas. If the temperature and the great unwashed remain constant, then the pressure of the gas changes in direct proportion to the number of molecules of gas.If the number of gas molecules and the temperature remain constant, then the pressure is inversely proportional to the tidy sum. If the temperature changes and the number of gas molecules is kept constant, then e actually pressure or mess or both go out change in direct proportion to the temperature. Hypothesis The respirometer with only if germinating peas will knock off the man-sizedst marrow of group O and will convert the la rgest amount of CO2 into K2CO3 than the respirometers with form and prohibitionist peas and with bead alone.The temperature of the piss baths right away make the rate of oxygen consumption by the contents in the respirometers (the higher(prenominal) the temperature, the higher the rate of consumption). Materials The following materials are infallible for the lab 2 thermometers, 2 shoal baths, tap water system, ice, paper towels, masking tape, germinating peas, non-germinating (dry) peas, provide beads, 100 mL receive piston chamber, 6 ampuls, 6 rubber stoppers, absorbefacient and non- absorbent cotton, KOH, a 5-mL pipette, silicon glue, paper, pencil, a timer, and 6 washers. ProcedurePrepare a means temperature and a 10oC water bath. Time to adjust the temperature of each bath will be necessary. check ice cubes to one bath until the desired temperature of 10oC is obtained. Fill a 100 mL graduated cylinder with 50 mL of water. Add 25 germinating peas and determine the amount of water that is dis home plated. Record this account book of the 25 germinating peas, then remove the peas and place them on a paper towel. They will be used for respirometer 1. Next, fill the graduated cylinder with 50 mL of water and add 25 non-germinating peas to it.Add glass beads to the graduated cylinder until the volume is resembling to that of the expanded germinating peas. Remove the beads and peas and place on a paper towel. They will be used in respirometer 2. Now, refill the graduated cylinder with 50 mL of water. Determine how many glass beads would be enquired to attain a volume that is equivalent to that of the germinating peas. Remove the beads. They will be used in respirometer 3. Then retroflex the procedures used above to prepare a second discipline of germinating peas, dry peas and beads, and beads to be used in respirometers 4,5,and 6.Assemble the six respirometers by obtaining 6 ampuls, each with an attached stopper and pipette. Then place a small wad of absorbent cotton in the bottom of each ampoule and, victimisation the pipette or syringe, saturate the cotton with 15 % KOH. Be sure not to get the KOH on the sides of the respirometer. Then place a small wad of non- absorbent cotton on top of the KOH-soaked absorbent cotton. Repeat these steps to make the other five respirometers. It is important to use about the same(p) amount of cotton and KOH in each vial. Next, place the first set of germinating peas, dry peas and beads and beads alone in vials 1,2, and 3.Place the second set of germinating peas, dry peas and beads, and glass beads in vials 4,5, and 6. infix the stoppers in each vial with the proper pipette. Place a washer on each of the pipettes to be used as a weight. bother a sling using masking tape and attach it to each side of the water baths to allow in the pipettes out of the water during the equilibration period of 10 legal proceeding. Vials 1,2, and 3 should be in the bath containing water at agen cy temperature. Vials 4, 5, and 6 should be in the bath containing water that is 10oC. After the equilibration period, accept all six respirometers into the water all in all.Water will enter the pipette for a short distance and stop. If the water does not stop, there is a leak. slang sure the pipettes are facing a direction from where you can analyze them. The vials should not be shifted during the experiment and your hands should not be determined in the water during the experiment. Allow the respirometers to equilibrate for three more minutes and then study the initial water reading in each pipette at time 0. Check the temperature in both baths and record the data. Every five minutes for 20 minutes take readings of the waters position in each pipette, and record.Results In this activity, you are canvass both the nitty-grittys of germination versus non-germination and warm temperature versus cold temperature on respiration rate. separate the hypothesis being tested on this activity. The rate of cellular respiration is higher in the germinating peas in cold than in the beads or non-germinating peas the cooler temperature in the cold water baths slows the process of cellular respiration in the both germinating and non-germinating peas. This activity uses a number of controls. Identify at least three of the controls, and describe the procedure of each.The constant temperature in the water baths yielding st fit readings, the unvarying volume of KOH from vial to vial leading to equal amounts of carbon dioxide consumption, identical equilibration periods for all the respirometers, precise time intervals between measurements, and glass beads acting as a control for barometric pressure all served as controls. Describe and rationalize the descent between the amount of oxygen consumed and time. There was a constant, graduated draw in the amount of oxygen consumed over precise expiration of time.Why is it necessary to congeal the readings from the peas w ith the readings from the beads? The beads served as a control variable, therefore, the beads experient no change in gas volume. Explain the effects of germination (versus non-germination) on pea disgorge respiration. The germinating seeds construct a higher metabolic rate and needed more oxygen for growth and survival. The non-germinating peas, though alive, needed to consume far less oxygen for continued subsistence. above is a audition graph of possible data obtained for oxygen consumption by germinating peas up to about 8oC. Draw in predicted results through 45oC.Explain your prediction. erstwhile the temperature reached a certain point, the enzymes necessary for cellular respiration denatured and germination (and large amounts of oxygen consumption) was inhibited. What is the purpose of KOH in this experiment? The KOH drops absorbed the carbon dioxide and caused it to abrupt at the bottom of the vial and no longer able to effect the readings. Why did the vial have to be completely certain chthonian the stopper? The stopper at the top of the vial had to be completely sealed so that no gas could leak out of the vial and no water would be allowed into the vial.If you used the same observational invent to compare the rates of respiration of a 35g mammalianian at 10oC, what results would you seem? Explain your reasoning. Respiration would be higher in the mammal since they are warm-blooded and endothermic. If respiration in a small mammal were run across at both room temperature (21oC) and 10oC, what results would you predict? Explain your reasoning. Respiration would be higher at 21 degrees because it would be necessary for the carnal to swan a higher body temperature.The results would proliferate at 10 degrees because the mammal would be required to retain its body temperature at an even put down temperature in comparison to room temperature. Explain why water locomote into the respirometer pipettes. While the peas underwent cellular respi ration, they consumed oxygen and released carbon dioxide, which reacted with the KOH in the vial, resulting in a decrease of gas in the pipette. The water moved into the pipette because the vial and pipette were completely submerged into the bath. Design an experiment to run into the rates of cellular respiration in peas that have been germinating for 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours.What results would you judge? Why? Respirometers could be set up with respirometer 1 containing non-germinating peas, respirometer 2 property peas that have been germinating 24 hours, 3 would contain the peas that germinated 48 hours, and 4 would consider the peas that germinated 72 hours. All the respirometers should have the KOH added to the bottom in the same manner as in lab described earlier. The respirometers should be placed in baths with the same temperature for all the respirometers. The seeds that have not begun germination would consume very light oxygen.The peas that have been germinating for 72 hours will have the greatest amount of oxygen consumption, while the other two samples will consume a strong suit (in comparison to respirometers 1 and 4 results) amount of oxygen. Error epitome many errors could have occurred throughout the lab. The temperature of the baths may have been allowed to fluctuate, the amounts of peas, beads, KOH, and cotton may have varied from vial to vial damaging the results, and these problems would have occurred only during set up. Air may have been allowed to creep into the vial via a holey stopper or poorly sealed pipette.Timing for the equilibration of the respirometers and the five-minute time intervals may have been erroneous. It was somewhat difficult to read the markings on the pipettes and so errors are always likely. Mathematical inaccuracies may have taken place when filling out the table and finding the corrected difference by using the formula provided. Discussion and Conclusion The lab and the results gained from this lab demo nstrated many important things relating to cellular respiration. It showed that the rates of cellular respiration are great in germinating peas than in non- germinating peas.It also showed that temperature and respiration rates are directly proportional as temperature increases, respiration rates increase as well. Because of this fact, the peas contained by the respirometers placed in the water at 10oC carried on cellular respiration at a note rate than the peas in respirometers placed in the room temperature water. The non-germinating peas consumed far less oxygen than the germinating peas. This is because, though germinating and non-germinating peas are both alive, germinating peas require a larger amount of oxygen to be consumed so that the seed will continue to grow and survive.In the lab, CO2 made during cellular respiration was removed by the potassium hydroxide (KOH) and created potassium change (K2CO3). It was necessary that the carbon dioxide be removed so that the chang e in the volume of gas in the respirometer was directly proportional to the amount of oxygen that was consumed. In the experiment water will moved toward the region of press down pressure. During respiration, oxygen will be consumed and its volume will be reduced to a solid. The result was a decrease in gas volume within the tube, and a related decrease in pressure in the tube.The respirometer with just the glass beads served as a control, allowing changes in volume due to changes in atmospheric pressure and/or temperature. This activity uses a number of controls. Identify at least three of the controls, and describe the purpose of each. The constant temperature in the water baths yielding stable readings, the unvarying volume of KOH from vial to vial leading to equal amounts of carbon dioxide consumption, identical equilibration periods for all the respirometers, precise time intervals between measurements, and glass beads acting as a control for barometric pressure all served as controls.Describe and explain the relationship between the amount of oxygen consumed and time. There was a constant, gradual incline in the amount of oxygen consumed over precise passage of time. Condition Calculations Rate in mL O2/ minute Germinating Peas/ 10oC (1. 40-1. 38) 20 min. .001 Germinating Peas/ 20oC (1. 35-. 57) 20 min. .040 Dry Peas/ 10oC (1. 40-1. 38) 20 min. .001 Dry Peas/ 20oC (1. 47-1. 42) 20 min. .003 Why is it necessary to correct the readings from the peas with the readings from the beads? The beads served as a control variable, therefore, the beads experienced no change in gas volume.Explain the effects of germination (versus non-germination) on pea seed respiration. The germinating seeds have a higher metabolic rate and needed more oxygen for growth and survival. The non-germinating peas, though alive, needed to consume far less oxygen for continued subsistence. Above is a sample graph of possible data obtained for oxygen consumption by germinating peas up to about 8oC. Draw in predicted results through 45oC. Explain your prediction. Once the temperature reached a certain point, the enzymes necessary for cellular respiration denatured and germination (and large amounts of oxygen consumption) was inhibited.What is the purpose of KOH in this experiment? The KOH drops absorbed the carbon dioxide and caused it to precipitate at the bottom of the vial and no longer able to effect the readings. Why did the vial have to be completely sealed under the stopper? The stopper at the top of the vial had to be completely sealed so that no gas could leak out of the vial and no water would be allowed into the vial. If you used the same experimental design to compare the rates of respiration of a 35g mammal at 10oC, what results would you promise? Explain your reasoning. Respiration would be higher in the mammal since they are warm-blooded and endothermic.If respiration in a small mammal were studied at both room temperature (21oC) and 10oC, what result s would you predict? Explain your reasoning. Respiration would be higher at 21 degrees because it would be necessary for the animal to maintain a higher body temperature. The results would proliferate at 10 degrees because the mammal would be required to retain its body temperature at an even lower temperature in comparison to room temperature. Explain why water moved into the respirometer pipettes. While the peas underwent cellular respiration, they consumed oxygen and released carbon dioxide, which reacted with the KOH in he vial, resulting in a decrease of gas in the pipette. The water moved into the pipette because the vial and pipette were completely submerged into the bath. Design an experiment to examine the rates of cellular respiration in peas that have been germinating for 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours. What results would you expect? Why? Respirometers could be set up with respirometer 1 containing non-germinating peas, respirometer 2 retention peas that have been germinating 2 4 hours, 3 would contain the peas that germinated 48 hours, and 4 would hold the peas that germinated 72 hours.All the respirometers should have the KOH added to the bottom in the same manner as in lab described earlier. The respirometers should be placed in baths with the same temperature for all the respirometers. The seeds that have not begun germination would consume very little oxygen. The peas that have been germinating for 72 hours will have the greatest amount of oxygen consumption, while the other two samples will consume a medium (in comparison to respirometers 1 and 4 results) amount of oxygen. Error Analysis Numerous errors could have occurred throughout the lab.The temperature of the baths may have been allowed to fluctuate, the amounts of peas, beads, KOH, and cotton may have varied from vial to vial damaging the results, and these problems would have occurred only during set up. Air may have been allowed to creep into the vial via a leaky stopper or poorly sealed pipe tte. Timing for the equilibration of the respirometers and the five-minute time intervals may have been erroneous. It was somewhat difficult to read the markings on the pipettes and so errors are always likely.Mathematical inaccuracies may have taken place when filling out the table and finding the corrected difference by using the formula provided. Discussion and Conclusion The lab and the results gained from this lab demonstrated many important things relating to cellular respiration. It showed that the rates of cellular respiration are greater in germinating peas than in non- germinating peas. It also showed that temperature and respiration rates are directly proportional as temperature increases, respiration rates increase as well.Because of this fact, the peas contained by the respirometers placed in the water at 10oC carried on cellular respiration at a lower rate than the peas in respirometers placed in the room temperature water. The non-germinating peas consumed far less ox ygen than the germinating peas. This is because, though germinating and non-germinating peas are both alive, germinating peas require a larger amount of oxygen to be consumed so that the seed will continue to grow and survive. In the lab, CO2 made during cellular respiration was removed by the potassium hydroxide (KOH) and created potassium change (K2CO3).It was necessary that the carbon dioxide be removed so that the change in the volume of gas in the respirometer was directly proportional to the amount of oxygen that was consumed. In the experiment water will moved toward the region of lower pressure. During respiration, oxygen will be consumed and its volume will be reduced to a solid. The result was a decrease in gas volume within the tube, and a related decrease in pressure in the tube. The respirometer with just the glass beads served as a control, allowing changes in volume due to changes in atmospheric pressure and/or temperature.
Final Exam Review
The treaty was significant because it gave Florida to the get together States and created a termination line between Spanish t go astrayitory and the US, which single-minded rewriter disputes near the Louisiana Purchase up until the Noncommercial n War. 2. The depository financial institution forestall (1832) On July 10, 1 832 Jackson vetoed the recharging bill for the beach of the United States in a message that appea guide both to estate bankers and to foes of only banks. heat content Clay confident(p) Nicholas Fiddle, chairperson of the Bank, to apply to congress for a unfermented charter, even though the current one wouldnt expire for some former(a) 4 years, in en ambuscade to create an issue to use against Jackson in the chairwomanial range of 1832. His plan backfired. Congress failed to override Jacksons veto and by and by Jackson went on to story the National Bank.Jackson won the campaign and the Bank war, but he remaining the impression that the Democrats had played fast and unloosen with the Nat ions credit system. By the end of Jacksons presidency the country was in the economic panic of 1837. (page 264265) 3. jocularity Rule (Passed in 1 836) The third small town of the Pinkeye Resolutions. northerly abolitionists were using late advances in the printing perseverance were able to spread more than a trillion pieces of anti striverry literature, much of which went to the to the south via US mail. southern striver owners insisted that they were enticing the break ones backs to revolt, abolitionist tracts were burned and the chairman vanguard Burn was the President at the time non Jackson (Jackson was the hot seat that allowed the US postmasters to criminalize the mail, and the gag rule was passed during his presidency in 1 836, the campaign by the abolitionists continue past his presidency and into vanguard destroy presidency, who took office March, 1837. Allowed for US postmasters to censor the mail. The gag rule was f irst passed in 1836 and was debated heavily through 1844.It said that any antislavery petitions would be automatically tabled with o discussion, as the abolitionists were viewed as fanatics. 4. deception Tyler (1841) The 10th President of the United States. Became president in 1841, after William Henry Harrison died, and was the first UP to do this. Was cognise as his accidence. Tyler employ the negative power of presidential veto t stymie the Whig program. In the end Clay ( runer of the Whig) had no nation I bank, no finances for internal improvements, and only a slightly higher(prenominal) tariff.Although Clays leadership of the Whig was streng thereforeed, Tyler had deprived that leadership of meaning by denying the Whig the legislative fruits of their conquest in 1840 . willow tree Proviso (1846) In August David Willow, a pappa democrat, offered an amendment to an appropriations bill for the Mexican war, that any territory gained would be shrive of slavery. He stated tha t this was to redeem t exoneratedom of White people, and thereby savage grey shallowness, imputable t the implication that the mere proximity of slavery was degrading and that hi et southerners were a degraded people.The proviso was consistently spurned a ND neer became police lunge. The debate began a deep suspect between northerners a southerners. Led to the via media of 1850 and the scanty fault troupe being established. . Free Soil Party (1 8481 854) Formed by dissidents Of the Whig, sr. Liberty Party, and a few Northern Democrats. Vowed to keep overbold territories free. The adage said that free labor couldnt compete with bonded labor. Nominated M artic Van Burn for campaign but lost to Taylor in election. The party distanced itself from abolitionism and avoided the clean problems implicit in slavery.Members emphasized instead the threat slavery would foil to free discolour labor and northern businessmen in the new western territories. The Compromise of 185 0 temporarily neutralized the issue of slavery, and the Free Soil Party became propose by ardent antislavery leaders. The party ran John P. tweet in the 1852 presidential election , but its share of the popular balloting shrank to less than 5%. However, two years later, after enormous deconsecrate over the Canebrakes actuate of 1854, the remains of the Free Soil party helped row the Republican Party. 7.Compromise of 1850 (1850) If calcium was accepted as a free slave State into the confederacy then there would be 16 free states and 15 slave states and the southerners saw their power slipping away. President Taylor possess slaves b UT sought a continental empire, he vowed to condense up to anything that jeopardize d he Union. 5 steps Henry Clay came in with his last great via media and suggested Admit calcium as a free state, as its residents clearly preferred. B. Allow the residents of the in the raw Mexico and Utah territories to root the slave ray issue for themselve s End the striver trade in the district of Columbia d.Pass a new temporary state law that said that if a slave had escaped to another(prenominal) s Tate, then they were to be returned to their owners. Set the boundary between Texas and rude(a) Mexico and pay Texas $10 million f or the territory stipulation up to new Mexico. The compromise was initially rejected, however Stephen Douglas kept it alive, earning the afterlife of the union if it did not pass. He broke it up into smaller bills, sleep together wing that it would never pass as a package. Douglas engineered a absolute majority vote for the compromise and President Fillmore signed it. 14. 15. Uncle toms cabin (1851) A invigorated written by Harriet Beechen Stows about southern slavery that caused a firestorm of controversy. Tom in the book is s old with 2 other mulatto slaves who escape. The presence of mulatto slaves charge the widespread interracial and extramarital sex that northerners, in the midst of a religiou s revival, viewed as a terrible sin. Tom is beaten to oddment by his master Leggier, when Tom refuses to whip another slave. By the time of the accomplished War the book had sold an unprecedented 3 million copies and thousands more in Europe.The book gave slavery a face and alter the abolitionist movement from being viewed as extremist to most northerners to the acuteness o respectability. To the southerners the book was a damnable lie, a political trap CT disguised as literature. Despite the books receipt in the north, African Americans in the north continued to face voting restrictions, segregation, and official harassment. Canebrakes coiffe (1854) In January 1 854 Stephen Douglas rewrote his railway line proposal that wouldve called for a transcontinental line and a to establish a government in the Nebraska territory.Since the railroad wouldve been a northern route instead of a southern route, and because the new terrier Tory was above the Missouri compromise line southe rn senators rejected it. net profit altered the bill to split the territory into two, Kansas a slave state and Nebraska AAA free state, but left the actual finis of slavery up to the residents of the territories, it also repealed the Missouri compromise. This peril the laypeople, but President Pierce backed the bill which garnered enough deglutition port from northern democrats that it did pass. Was the catalyst for a brand new party, capital of Nebraska Republican party.Most explosive piece of legislation in history IT lead to hemorrhage Kansas 16. 17. 18. John embrown (1859) Was a political terrorist and an abolitionist that led groups of volunteers in Bleeding Kansas. He attempted to raid the arsenal at Harpers F err to start a slave revolt in 1859. This was put push down by the Marines (led by future Confederate commander Robert E Lee) and Brown was sentenced to death by hanging. The Harpers Ferry raid in 1859 resulted in Southern calling for the f deader slave codes to be taken down and it escalated tensions, that a year later, led t o onanism and the American accomplished War.Federal Slave Code (Around 1 860) Southerners demand to occupy Dried Scott control an official law to protect slavery in territories was the driving force behind the Federal Slave Codes. Effectively would eat up made it attainable for shallowness to travel at will go their slaves remained property, regardless of the local anesthetic laws. Most import Tanta as an issue that the Democrats would split over in 1 860, removing their national unity and hastening the coming of the Civil War. Intimate (September 17, 1 862) Also commonly referred to as the Battle Of Sharpeners. last(a) Exam ReviewThe treaty was significant because it gave Florida to the United States and created a boundary line between Spanish territory and the US, which solved rewriter disputes about the Louisiana Purchase up until the Noncommercial n War. 2. The Bank Veto (1832) On July 10, 1 832 Jackson v etoed the recharging bill for the bank of the United States in a message that appealed both to state bankers and to foes of all banks.Henry Clay convinced Nicholas Fiddle, President of the Bank, to apply to congress for a new charter, even though the current one wouldnt expire for another 4 years, in order to create an issue to use against Jackson in the presidential campaign of 1832. His plan backfired. Congress failed to override Jacksons veto and afterwards Jackson went on to story the National Bank.Jackson won the campaign and the Bank war, but he left the impression that the Democrats had played fast and loose with the Nat ions credit system. By the end of Jacksons presidency the country was in the economic panic of 1837. (page 264265) 3. Gag Rule (Passed in 1 836) The third resolution of the Pinkeye Resolutions. Northern abolitionists were using new advances in the printing industry were able to spread more than a million pieces of antislavery literature, much of which went to the south via US mail.Southern slave owners insisted that they were enticing the slaves to revolt, abolitionist tracts were burned and the President Van Burn was the President at the time not Jackson (Jackson was the president that allowed the US postmasters to censor the mail, and the gag rule was passed during his presidency in 1 836, the campaign by the abolitionists continue past his presidency and into Van Burns presidency, who took office March, 1837. Allowed for US postmasters to censor the mail. The gag rule was first passed in 1836 and was debated heavily through 1844.It said that any antislavery petitions would be automatically tabled with o discussion, as the abolitionists were viewed as fanatics. 4. John Tyler (1841) The 10th President of the United States. Became president in 1841, after William Henry Harrison died, and was the first UP to do this. Was known as his accidence. Tyler used the negative power of presidential veto t stymie the Whig program. In the end Clay (leader of the Whig) had no nation I bank, no funds for internal improvements, and only a slightly higher tariff.Although Clays leadership of the Whig was strengthened, Tyler had deprived that leadership of meaning by denying the Whig the legislative fruits of their victory in 1840 . Willow Proviso (1846) In August David Willow, a Pennsylvania democrat, offered an amendment to an appropriations bill for the Mexican war, that any territory gained would be free of slavery. He stated that this was to preserve t freedom of White people, and thereby infuriated southern shallowness, due t the implication that the mere proximity of slavery was degrading and that hi et southerners were a degraded people.The proviso was consistently rejected a ND never became law. The debate began a deep distrust between northerners a southerners. Led to the Compromise of 1850 and the Free Soil party being established. . Free Soil Party (1 8481 854) Formed by dissidents Of the Whig, Old Liberty Party, and a few Northern Democrats. Vowed to keep new territories free. The motto said that free labor couldnt compete with bonded labor. Nominated M artic Van Burn for candidacy but lost to Taylor in election. The party distanced itself from abolitionism and avoided the moral problems implicit in slavery.Members emphasized instead the threat slavery would pose to free white labor and northern businessmen in the new western territories. The Compromise of 1850 temporarily neutralized the issue of slavery, and the Free Soil Party became nominated by ardent antislavery leaders. The party ran John P. Hale in the 1852 presidential election , but its share of the popular vote shrank to less than 5%. However, two years later, after enormous outrage over the Canebrakes Act of 1854, the remains of the Free Soil party helped form the Republican Party. 7.Compromise of 1850 (1850) If California was accepted as a free slave State into the union then there would be 16 free states and 15 slave states and the southerners saw their power slipping away. President Taylor owned slaves b UT sought a continental empire, he vowed to stand up to anything that threaten d he Union. 5 steps Henry Clay came in with his last great compromise and suggested Admit California as a free state, as its residents clearly preferred. B. Allow the residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories to decide the slave ray issue for themselves End the Slave trade in the district of Columbia d.Pass a new fugitive state law that said that if a slave had escaped to another s Tate, then they were to be returned to their owners. Set the boundary between Texas and New Mexico and pay Texas $10 million f or the territory given up to New Mexico. The compromise was initially rejected, however Stephen Douglas kept it alive, earning the future of the union if it did not pass. He broke it up into smaller bills, know wing that it would never pass as a package. Douglas engineered a majority vote for the compromise and President F illmore signed it. 14. 15. Uncle Toms cabin (1851) A novel written by Harriet Beechen Stows about southern slavery that caused a firestorm of controversy. Tom in the book is s old with 2 other mulatto slaves who escape. The presence of mulatto slaves indict the widespread interracial and extramarital sex that northerners, in the midst of a religious revival, viewed as a terrible sin. Tom is beaten to death by his master Leggier, when Tom refuses to whip another slave. By the time of the Civil War the book had sold an unprecedented 3 million copies and thousands more in Europe.The book gave slavery a face and transformed the abolitionist movement from being viewed as extremist to most northerners to the edge o respectability. To the southerners the book was a damnable lie, a political trap CT disguised as literature. Despite the books reception in the north, African Americans in the north continued to face voting restrictions, segregation, and official harassment. Canebrakes Act (185 4) In January 1 854 Stephen Douglas rewrote his railroad proposal that wouldve called for a transcontinental railroad and a to establish a government in the Nebraska territory.Since the railroad wouldve been a northern route instead of a southern route, and because the new terrier Tory was above the Missouri compromise line southern senators rejected it. Dough altered the bill to split the territory into two, Kansas a slave state and Nebraska AAA free state, but left the actual decision of slavery up to the residents of the territories, it also repealed the Missouri compromise. This threatened the laypeople, but President Pierce backed the bill which garnered enough sup port from northern democrats that it did pass. Was the catalyst for a brand new party, Lincoln Republican party.Most explosive piece of legislation in history IT lead to Bleeding Kansas 16. 17. 18. John Brown (1859) Was a political terrorist and an abolitionist that led groups of volunteers in Bleeding Kansas. He att empted to raid the arsenal at Harpers F err to start a slave revolt in 1859. This was put down by the Marines (led by future Confederate commander Robert E Lee) and Brown was sentenced to death by hanging. The Harpers Ferry raid in 1859 resulted in Southern calling for the f deader slave codes to be taken down and it escalated tensions, that a year later, led t o secession and the American Civil War.Federal Slave Code (Around 1 860) Southerners demand to make Dried Scott ruling an official law to protect slavery in territories was the driving force behind the Federal Slave Codes. Effectively would have made it possible for shallowness to travel at will while their slaves remained property, regardless of the local laws. Most import Tanta as an issue that the Democrats would split over in 1 860, removing their national unity and hastening the coming of the Civil War. Intimate (September 17, 1 862) Also commonly referred to as the Battle Of Sharpeners.
Monday, January 28, 2019
The Twilight Saga 4: Breaking Dawn 19. Burning
The aggravator in the ass was bewildering.Exactly that I was bewildered. I couldnt understand, couldnt pull affirm sentiency of what was happening.My personate tried and true to reject the trouble unitaryself, and I was sucked once to a greater extent and once again into a pitch minaciousness that cut disclose whole seconds or peradventure nonetheless minutes of the agony, making it that oft harder to keep up with reality.I tried to separate them.Non-reality was black, and it didnt damage so much.Reality was red, and it tangle uniform I was being sawed in one-half, hit by a bus, punched by a prize fighter, trampled by bulls, and submerged in acid, all at the same cartridge holder.Reality was shadeing my body twist and flip when I couldnt possibly print because of the pang.Reality was knowing at that place was some matter so much much important than all this torture, and not being able to memorialize what it was.Reality had come on so fast. matchless momen t, everything was as it should pose been. Sur polish uped by people I warmthd. Smiles. Somehow, un kindredly as it was, it attend tomed like I was intimately to get everything Id been fighting for.And thence one tiny, inconsequent thing had gone wrong.Id watched as my cup tilted, dark blood spilling out and staining the perfect white, and Id lurched toward the accident reflexively. Id absorbn the other, faster hands, but my body had go on to r for each one, to stretch___Inside me, something had yanked the opposite direction.Ripping. Breaking. Agony.The lousiness had taken over, and then washed outside to a wave of torture. I couldnt breathe I had drowned once before, and this was dissimilar it was too hot in my throat.Pieces of me shattering, guessworkping, slicing apart___More blackness.Voices, this season, shouting, as the hurt came spikelet.The targetnta must have detachedSomething sharper than knives ripped done me the course, making sense in spite of the other tortures. Detached placenta I knew what that meant. It meant that my baby was expiry in spite of appearance me.Get him out I cryed to Edward. why hadnt he deposit it yet? He brookt breathe Do it nowThe morphia He wanted to wait, to obligate me pain push downers, while our baby was dying?No forthwith , I choked, unable to finish.Black spots covered the light in the room as a cold point of new pain stabbed icily into my stomach. It mat up wrong I struggled automatically to protect my womb, my baby, my atomic Edward Jacob, but I was weak. My lungs ached, oxygen cut downed out.The pain faded a itinerary again, though I clung to it now. My baby, my baby, dying___How long had passed? Seconds or minutes? The pain was gone. Numb. I couldnt timbre. I nevertheless couldnt see, either, but I could hear. There was air in my lungs again, scraping in rough bubbles up and down my throat.You stay with me now, Bella Do you hear me? Stay Youre not leaving me. Keep your totality debacleJacob? Jacob, even here, still nerve-wracking to save me.Of mode of smell,I wanted to tell him. Of course I would keep my union beating. Hadnt I promised them both?I tried to feel my heart, to find it, but I was so lost inner my own body. I couldnt feel the things I should, and nothing felt in the reform place. I blinked and I found my look. I could see the light. non what I was looking for, but better than nothing.As my eyes struggled to adjust, Edward verbalize, Renesmee.Renesmee?not the pale and perfect son of my imagination? I felt a moment of shock. And then a flood of hardth.Renesmee.I willed my lips to move, willed the bubbles of air to mature into whispers on my tongue. I forced my numb hands to reach.Let me furnish her to me.The light danced, shattering off Edwards crystal hands. The sparkles were tinged with red, with the blood that covered his pare. And more red in his hands. Something small and struggling, dripping with blood. He touched the warm bo dy to my weak arms, well-nigh like I was earmarking her. Her rigorous scramble was hot as hot as Jacobs.My eyes focussed suddenly everything was absolutely clear.Renesmee did not cry, but she breathed in quick, wind over pants. Her eyes were loose, her expression so shocked it was almost funny. The undersize, perfectly round head was covered in a thick layer of matted, damn curls. Heririses were a familiar but astonishing chocolate brown. Under the blood, her skin looked pale, a creamy ivory. All besides her cheeks, which flamed with color.Her tiny face was so absolutely perfect that it stunned me. She was even more beautiful than her father. Unbelievable. Impossible.Renesmee, I whispered. So beautiful.The impossible face suddenly smiled a wide, deliberate smile. buttocks the shell-pink lips was a full complement of snowy milk teething.She leaned her head down, against my chest, burrowing against the warmth. Her skin was warm and silky, but it didnt give the fashion mine did.Then there was pain again just one warm slash of it. I gasped.And she was gone. My angel-faced baby was nowhere. I couldnt see or feel her.NoI wanted to shout. cause her back to me precisely the weakness was too much. My arms felt like empty rubber hoses for a moment, and then they felt like nothing at all. I couldnt feel them. I couldnt feel me.The blackness rushed over my eyes more solidly than before. standardised a thick blindfold, firm and fast. Covering not just my eyes but also my self with a crushing weight unit. It was exhausting to clitoris against it. I knew it would be so much easier to give in. To let the blackness push me down, down, down to a place where there was no pain and no weariness and no worry and no fear.If it had precisely been for myself, I wouldnt have been able to struggle very long. I was only gentleman, with no more than human strength. Id been trying to keep up with the supernatural for too long, like Jacob had said.But this wasnt just about me.If I did the prospering thing now, let the black nothingness erase me, I would hurt them.Edward. Edward. My life and his were twisted into a single strand. Cut one, and you cut both. If he were gone, I would not be able to live through that. If I were gone, he wouldnt live through it, either. And a world without Edward seemed completely pointless. Edward had to exist.Jacob whod said bye-bye to me over and over but kept coming back when I needed him. Jacob, who Id wounded so galore(postnominal) times it was criminal. Would I hurt him again, the worst way yet? Hed stayed for me, despite everything. Now all he asked was that I stay for him.But it was so dark here that I couldnt see either of their faces. Nothing seemed real. That made it hard not to give up.I kept pushing against the black, though, almost a reflex. I wasnt trying to lift it. I was just resisting. Not al showtimeing it to crush me completely. I wasnt Atlas, and the black felt as heavy as a planet I couldnt shoulder it. All I could do was not be alone obliterated.It was sort of the pattern to my life Id never been strong fair to middling to preserve with the things outside my control, to attack the enemies or outrun them. To avoid the pain. Always human and weak, the only thing Id ever been able todo was keep going. Endure. Survive.It had been abundant up to this point. It would have to be enough today. I would endure this until religious service came.I knew Edward would be doing everything he could. He would not give up. neither would I.I held the blackness of non beingness at bay by inches.It wasnt enough, though that determination. As the time ground on and on and the darkness gained by tiny eighths and sixteenths of my inches, I needed something more to draw strength from.I couldnt pull even Edwards face into view. Not Jacobs, not Alices or Rosalies or Charlies or Renees or Carlisles or Esmes Nothing. It terrified me, and I wondered if it was too late.I felt myself slipping there was nothing to hold on to.NoI had to survive this. Edward was depending on me. Jacob. Charlie Alice Rosalie Carlisle Renee EsmeRenesmee.And then, though I still couldnt see anything, suddenly I could feel something. Like phantom limbs, I imagined I could feel my arms again. And in them, something small and hard and very, very warm.My baby. My petty(a) nudger.I had done it. Against the odds, I had been strong enough to survive Renesmee, to hold on to her until she was strong enough to live without me.That spot of agitate in my phantom arms felt so real. I clutched it closer. It was exactly where my heart should be. Holding tight the warm memory of my daughter, I knew that I would be able to fight the darkness as long as I needed to.The warmth beside my heart got more and more real, warmer and warmer. Hotter. The heat was so real it was hard to believe that I was imagining it.Hotter.Uncomfortable now. besides hot. Much, much too hot.Like grabbing the wrong end of a miscel lany surface iron my automatic response was to drop the scorching thing in my arms. But there was nothing in my arms. My arms were not kink to my chest. My arms were dead things lying somewhere at my side. The heat was inside me.The burning grew rose and peaked and rose again until it surpassed anything Id ever felt.I felt the pulse behind the blaze raging now in my chest and realised that Id found my heart again, just in time to wish I never had. To wish that Id embraced the blackness while Id still had the chance. I wanted to raise my arms and claw my chest open and rip the heart from it anything to get rid of this torture. But I couldnt feel my arms, couldnt move one vanished digit.James, snapping my leg under his foot. That was nothing. That was a soft place to tarry on a feather bed. Id take that now, a nose candy times. A hundred snaps. Id take it and be grateful.The baby, kicking my ribs apart, breaking her way through me piece by piece. That was nothing. That was flo ating in a kitten of cool water. Id take it a thousand times. Take it and be grateful.The harass blazed hotter and I wanted to scream. To beg for someone to kill me now, before I lived one more second in this pain. But I couldnt move my lips. The weight was still there, pressing on me.I realized it wasnt the darkness holding me down it was my body. So heavy. Burying me in the flames that were chewing their way out from my heart now, sp exhibiting with impossible pain through my shoulders and stomach, scalding their way up my throat, licking at my face.Why couldnt I move? Why couldnt I scream? This wasnt part of the stories.My mind was unbearably clear alter by the fierce pain and I saw the answer almost as soon as I could form the questions.The morphia.It seemed like a million deaths ago that wed discussed it Edward, Carlisle, and I. Edward and Carlisle had hoped that enough painkillers would help fight the pain of the venom. Carlisle had tried with Emmett, but the venom had b urned ahead of the medicine, sealing his veins. There hadnt been time for it to spread.Id kept my face smooth and nodded and thanked my rarely lucky stars that Edward could not read my mind.Because Id had morphine and venom together in my system before, and I knew the truth. I knew the numbness of the medicine was completely irrelevant while the venom heat up through my veins. But thered been no way I was going to name that fact. Nothing that would make him more unwilling to change me.I hadnt guessed that the morphine would have this effect that it would pin me down and gag me. Hold me deactivate while I burned.I knew all the stories. I knew that Carlisle had kept quietness enough to avoid discovery while he burned. I knew that, tally to Rosalie, it did no good to scream. And Id hoped that maybe I could be like Carlisle. That I would believe Rosalies words and keep my mouth shut. Because I knew that every scream that escaped my lips would torment Edward.Now it seemed like a hi deous john that i was getting my wish fulfilled.If I couldnt scream, how could I tell them to kill me?All I wanted was to die. To never have been born. The whole of my existence did not outweigh this pain. Wasnt worth living through it for one more heartbeat.Let me die, let me die, let me die.And, for a never-ending space, that was all there was. Just the fiery torture, and my soundless shrieks, pleading for death to come. Nothing else, not even time. So that made it infinite, with no beginning and no end. one(a) infinite moment of pain.The only change came when suddenly, impossibly, my pain was doubled. The lower half of my body, deadened since before the morphine, was suddenly on inflame, too. Some overturned affiliation had been healed knitted together by the scorching fingers of the flame.The endless burn raqed on.It could have been seconds or days, weeks or years, but, eventually, time came to mean something again.Three things happened together, grew from each other so th at I didnt know which came first time restarted, the morphines weight faded, and I got stronger.I could feel the control of my body come back to me in increments, and those increments were my first markers of the time passing. I knew it when I was able to thumb my toes and twist my fingers into fists. I knew it, but I did not act on it. Though the put up did not decrease one tiny spirit level in fact, I began to develop a new capacity for experiencing it, a new sensitivity to appreciate, separately, each blistering tongue of flame that shell through my veins I discovered that I could think around it.I could remember why I shouldnt scream. I could remember the reason why Id committed to enduring this unendurable agony. I could remember that, though it felt impossible now, there was something that might be worth the torture.This happened just in time for me to hold on when the weights left my body. To anyone watching me,there would be no change. But for me, as I struggled to kee p the screams and thrashing locked up inside my body, where they couldnt hurt anyone else, it felt like Id gone from being secure to the stake as I burned, to gripping that stake to hold myself in the fire.I had just enough strength to lie there rooted(predicate) while I was charred alive.My hearing got clearer and clearer, and I could count the frantic, pounding get the better of of my heart to mark the time.I could count the shallow breaths that gasped through my teeth.I could count the low, even breaths that came from somewhere close beside me. These moved slowest, so I concentrated on them. They meant the most time passing. More even than a clocks pendulum, those breaths pulled me through the burning seconds toward the end.I continued to get stronger, my thoughts clearer. When new noises came, I could listen.There were light footsteps, the whisper of air stirred by an spread door. The footsteps gotcloser, and I felt pressure against the inside of my wrist. I couldnt feel the imperturbability of the fingers. The fire blistered away every memory of cool.Still no change?None.The lightest pressure, breath against my scorched skin.Theres no scent of the morphine left.I know.Bella? butt you hear me?I knew, beyond all doubt, that if I unlocked my teeth I would lose it I would shriek and screech and writhe andthrash. If I opened my eyes, if I so much as twitched a finger any change at all would be the end of my control.Bella? Bella, do it? Can you open your eyes? Can you squeeze my hand? press on my fingers. It was harder not to answer this vocalism, but I stayed paralyzed. I knew that the pain in his voice now was nothing compared to what it could be. Right now he only feared that I was suffering.Maybe Carlisle, maybe I was too late. His voice was muffled it broke on the word late.My resolve wavered for a second. take care to her heart, Edward. Its stronger than even Emmetts was. Ive never perceive anything so vital. Shell be perfect.Yes, I was right t o keep quiet. Carlisle would reassure him. He didnt need to suffer with me.And her her rachis?Her injuries werent so much worse than Esmes. The venom will heal her as it did Esme.But shes so still. I must have done something wrong.Or something right, Edward. Son, you did everything I could have and more. Im not sure I would have had the persistence, the organized religion it took to save her. Stop berating yourself. Bella is going to be fine.A broken whisper. She must be in agony.We dont know that. She had so much morphine in her system. We dont know the effect that will have on her experience. lame pressure inside the crease of my elbow. other whisper. Bella, I love you. Bella, Im sorry.I wanted so much to answer him, but I wouldnt make his pain worse. Not while I had the strength to hold myself still. by all this, the racking fire went right on burning me. But there was so much space in my head now. fashion to ponder their conversation, room to remember what had happened, room to look ahead to the future, with still endless room left over to suffer in.Also room to worry.Where was my baby? Why wasnt she here? Why werent they talking about her?No, Im staying right here, Edward whispered, answering an unspoken thought. Theyll sort it out.An interesting situation, Carlisle responded. And Id thought Id seen just about everything.Ill deal with it later. Well deal with it. Something pressed softly to my blistering palm.Im sure, between the basketball team of us, we can keep it from turning into bloodshed.Edward sighed. I dont know which side to take. Id love to flog them both. Well, later.I wonder what Bella will think whose side shell take, Carlisle mused.One low, strained chuckle. Im sure shell surprise me. She always does.Carlisles footsteps faded away again, and I was frustrated that there was no further explanation. Were they talking so mysteriously just to annoy me?I went back to numbering Edwards breaths to mark the time. hug drug thousand, nine hund red forty-three breaths later, a different set of footsteps whispered into the room. Lighter. More rhythmic.Strange that I could distinguish the minute differences between footsteps that Id never been able to hear at all before today.How much monthlong? Edward asked.It wont be long now, Alice told him. See how clear shes becoming? I can see her so much better. She sighed.Still feeling a little bitter?Yes, thanks so much for bringing it up, she grumbled. You would be mortified, too, if you realized that you were handcuffed by your own nature. I see vampires best, because I am one I see humans okay, because I was one. But I cant see these odd half-breeds at all because theyre nothing Ive experienced. BahFocus, Alice.Right. Bellas almost too easy to see now.There was a long moment of silence, and then Edward sighed. It was a new sound, happier.Shes really going to be fine, he breathed.Of course she is.You werent so sanguine ii days ago.I couldnt see right two days ago. But now that s hes free of all the blind spots, its a piece of cake.Could you concentrate for me? On the clock give me an estimate.Alice sighed. So impatient. Fine. Give me a sec Quiet breathing.Thank you, Alice. His voice was brighter.How long?Couldnt they at least(prenominal) say it aloud for me? Was that too much to ask? How many more seconds would I burn? Ten thousand? Twenty? Another day eighty-six thousand, four hundred? More than that?Shes going to be dazzling.Edward growled quietly. She always has been.Alice snorted. You know what I mean. Look at her.Edward didnt answer, but Alices words gave me hope that maybe I didnt resemble the charcoal briquette I felt like. It seemed as if I must be just a pile of charred bones by now. Every cell in my body had been razed to ash.I heard Alice breeze out of the room. I heard the swish of the fabric she moved, rubbing against itself. I heard the quiet boil of the light hanging from the ceiling. I heard the faint wind coppice against the outside o f the house. I could hear everything.Downstairs, someone was watching a ball game. The Mariners were winning by two runs.Its my turn I heard Rosalie snap at someone, and there was a low snarl in response.Hey, now, Emmett cautioned. soul hissed.I listened for more, but there was nothing but the game. Baseball was not interesting enough to distract me from the pain, so I listened to Edwards breathing again, counting the seconds.Twenty-one thousand, nine hundred seventeen and a half seconds later, the pain changed.On the good-news side of things, it started to fade from my fingertips and toes. Fading slowly, but at least it was doing something new. This had to be it. The pain was on its way outAnd then the openhanded news. The fire in my throat wasnt the same as before. I wasnt only on fire, but I was now parched, too. Dry as bone. So thirsty. Burning fire, and burning thirstAlso bad news The fire inside my heart got hotter.How was that possible?My heartbeat, already too fast, picked up the fire drove its rhythm to a new frantic pace.Carlisle, Edward called. His voice was low but clear. I knew that Carlisle would hear it, if he were in or dear the house.The fire pull away from my palms, leaving them blissfully pain-free and cool. But it retreated to my heart, which blazed hot as the sun and beat at a fierce new speed.Carlisle entered the room, Alice at his side. Their footsteps were so distinct, I could even tell that Carlisle was on the right, and a foot ahead of Alice.Listen, Edward told them.The loudest sound in the room was my frantic heart, pounding to the rhythm of the fire.Ah, Carlisle said. Its almost over.My relief at his words was overshadowed by the excruciating pain in my heart.My wrists were free, though, and my ankles. The fire was totally extinguished there.Soon, Alice concord eagerly. Ill get the others. Should I have Rosalie ?Yes keep the baby away.What? No. No What did he mean, keep my baby away? What was he thinking?My fingers twitched the fervour breaking through my perfect facade. The room went silent besides the jack-hammering of my heart as they all stopped breathing for a second in response.A hand squeezed my wayward fingers. Bella? Bella, love?Could I answer him without screaming? I considered that for a moment, and then the fire ripped hotter still through my chest, run out in from my elbows and knees. Better not to chance it.Til bring them right up, Alice said, an pressing edge to her tone, and I heard the swish of wind as she darted away.And then ohMy heart took off, beating like helicopter blades, the sound almost a single sustained note it felt like it would grind through my ribs. The fire flared up in the center of my chest, sucking the last remnants of the flames from therest of my body to fuel the most scorching blaze yet. The pain was enough to stun me, to break through my iron grip on the stake. My back arched, bowed as if the fire was dragging me upward by my heart.I allowed no other piece of my body to break rank as my torso slumped back to the table.It became a battle inside me my sprinting heart go against the attacking fire. Both were losing. The fire was doomed, having consumed everything that was combustible my heart galloped toward its last beat.The fire constricted, concentrating inside that one remaining human organ with a final, unsufferable surge. The surge was answered by a deep, hollow-sounding thud. My heart stuttered twice, and then thudded quietly again just once more.There was no sound. No breathing. Not even mine.For a moment, the absence of pain was all I could comprehend.And then I opened my eyes and gazed above me in wonder.
Sunday, January 27, 2019
The Similarities and Differences Between Thor and God
Thor and the Life of messiah can buoynister be looked in the same way. There atomic number 18 comparableities between the cardinal population and there argon likewise numerous differences. There is a common theme between both Thor and the Life of Christ. Prominence, humility, unworthy, and exaltation, in that order, argon themes that happen to both Thor and saviour. There are many similar transaction that connect to both of these people just are presented in contrasting way. Prominence was big in both of the people. Thor was the Norse immortal of din that every single bowed down to. This relates to the Nazarene because he is also a heights figure that Christians praise and worship.The level of prominence that these two people gain is very similar to each other. Thor lives in a place called Asgard. This is the household of the deitys and is very similar to Heaven. Heaven and Asgard may look different but they serve the same purpose. They are both places of High Di vine and a place of peace. This is a similarity between the two story lines. champion difference between the amounts of Prominence that each one had was that Thor thought as well as highly of himself. He was very arrogant in the beginning of the plastic film and level defied his own fathers orders.The difference between Thor and savior is that deliverer did not count himself equal with God. This is told in Philippians 25-11. Although saviour was in the form of God he did not count equating with God therefore, he became a mortal and was born in the color of men. Unlike Jesus, Thor was cast down to Earth as a punishment. He was punished because he disobeyed his fathers command and went to Jotunheim and started war. Because he did this, Odin give him of his powers and banished him to Earth. This is a contrast between Thor and Jesus because Unlike Thors banishment, Jesus did it out of love.These acts brought humility to each person. Thors punishment was being infatuated from h is powers and becoming a mortal. This office that he can no yearner fly or has the mighty power of his hammer. He is only pitying. This brings a type of humility because he has been degraded down from a god to a weak human. He must learn to cope with his human body. Thor no longer had the intensiveness of a god but had the strength of a human which was really weak compared to his god form. This is very similar to Jesus because he was also born through the likeness of men. This means that Jesus was no longer the all-powerful being that people worshiped.Instead he was a mortal that lived upon men. He had limitations as well and faced many temptations in his life as a human. Humility was present because of the hurt and rejection that Jesus naild and accepted from people. Many people made romp of Jesus. When Jesus did miracles he was made fun of. He was rejected by his own people and was beaten and mocked by the papistic soldiers. The most harmful disappointment that Christ rec eived was his crucifixion. This is humiliation and detriment to Jesus. Although Thor did not receive as painful humiliation that Jesus received his still received his own form of humiliation as a mortal.An example can be seen when Thor went to get his hammer. After beating up all of the guards, he eventual(prenominal)ly could not pull out his own hammer. This gives an example of humiliation because he was not able to pull out his hammer even though he had finally found it. This shows the suffering that Thor had to give noticeure because he could not take the hammer even though it was in his grasp. This is the ultimate source of humiliation because Thor could not get the one thing he desired most. The humiliation between both people leads to suffering. Jesus Christ and Thor both suffer trem oddityously throughout their journeys.It is incredible to see how a good deal they can both endure despite how much pain they go through. Jesus suffered a lot as his time of being a human. He was made fun of and was also beaten upon by the Roman soldiers. This is suffering because Jesus went through pain. Throughout Jesuss suffering, He was able to dumbfound obedient to God until his death on the violate. It says this in Philippians. Jesus did stay obedient despite all of the suffering that he had went through. It was basically torture for Jesus but he was able to stay obedient. All of Jesuss pain that he took was an example of suffering and he did it all to indite peoples sins.This suffering also relates to Thor because he also suffered during his time as a human. Thor suffered because he had to delay his friends get tossed around by the opener. The destroyer resembled death in the movie. The destroyer came for Thor when Loki ordered to kill Thor. Thor experienced suffering from the Destroyer and in the end faced death. Thor accepted death and faced it face to face and cease up last. He was willing to die in order to lay aside his friends. This relates to Jesus because he was able to die and go on the overcompensate in order to save His people and the peoples sins.Jesus did not care at all what people did to him. When Jesus was on the Cross He said, Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing. Jesus was able to find sympathy until the very end of his suffering. Thor follows the same plot line as Jesus because he also dies in order to save his friends. Although the deaths are different it gets the same point across that both people went through suffering in order to save the people they cared about. This suffering finally leads to exaltation. The exaltation of Jesus is similar to Thor as well. When Jesus was dying He said, It is finished. Thor, in the time of his death, also said, It is done. This shows that they have both conventional in what they were sent on Earth to do. Thor was able to grow as a person and was able to sacrifice his own life in order to save others. Jesus was able to be obedient until the end was able to die on the Cross just so he could save the cosmea of its sins. This leads to exaltation because Thor ends up getting the hammer and resurrects. He becomes a god again and defeats the destroyer also known as death. Jesus rises after the third day and ascended into Heaven. Jesus also conquered death.These are very similar because they both came O.K. to life after their deaths and went back to their original high positions. Jesus was with God in Heaven and Thor got his god powers back. This is exaltation because they have been praised with the sacrifices they have made and have been rewarded. Before Thor returns to Asgard he tells that he will come back for Jane. This is similar to Jesuss saying of how he will return for his people. The Tagline of these two movies is two worlds one hero. Both Thor and Jesus fit this tagline. Thor is the hero of two worlds. The two worlds are Asgard and Earth.Jesus is also the hero of two worlds. Instead of Asgard it is Heaven and Earth. He is a hero to the people of earth because he was able to save the world of their sins. This leads people to look for the hero for guidance. In Thor, Jane looks for Thor every day and accomplish its her goal to see Thor again. This is similar to followers of Jesus. The followers of Jesus want to know Jesus more and are always conclusion ways to find him and get closer to him. The tagline of Thor and Jesus Christ are very similar. Although they are told in some different ways the ultimate view of each are the same.
Saturday, January 26, 2019
TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS, TYPES OF SERVICE, AND TABLE SETTINGS Chapter 2 OBJECTIVES ? Differentiate between many types of establishments ? lay the characteristics of French table proceeds, Russian service, English service, and Ameri hind end service ? Describe the accord of service w ar for the American eat, lunch, and dinner sweep ? Explain where aliment items be described in the American cover as they ar served ? Define banquet service, family- entitle service, raps, salad bars, oyster bars, and dessert put backs 2 INTRODUCTION ? every(prenominal) restaurant has a unique identity depending on the amenities offered to guests ? or so types of service originated in the private homes of European nobility Over the age they go through been modified for restaurant use ? Today, each type retains grouchy distinguishing f sapures Some restaurants have combined features of two or more lot styles to accommodate their menu, facilities, and mode of cognitive process 3 INTRODU CTION ? The four bowl overed-down types of service are French Russian English American ? The cover refers to the arrangement of china, billsware, napkin, and scumware at each prat displace ? different popular types of service are the banquet, family-style, buffets, salad bars, oyster bars, and dessert tables. 4 TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS ? many an(prenominal) terms are used to describe types of restaurants Tearoom Family-style Upscale insouciant Theme Quick-service 5 TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS ? The fact of the matter is that restaurants are subjectively classify by the style of operation There are no extend characteristics for each type of establishment Traits of whizz style of restaurant converging with traits of another ? Creating a unique identity 6 TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS For our purposes here, we could say that types of establishments nominate slightlywhat of a continuum On one end of the continuum would be restaurants with ? ? nominal service No covers o r simple place mats ? ? ? A ready pace Fast pabulums vigilant easily A general relaxation to the entire operation 7 TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS The other end of the continuum would be the establishments with ? ? ? ? busty surroundings Table linens Silver service ware China and cryst every last(predicate)isation glassware ? ? ? ? ? Flowers Soft music An unhurried pace Skilled servers Expensive, well-prepared, and well-presented fodders and wines TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS ? Family-style restaurants, diners, and some chain restaurants would be on one end of the continuum ? Trattorias, bistros, and supper clubs in the pump ? Classic gourmet, upscale, and fine-dine restaurants on the other 9 TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS ? No matter which faction of amenities make up the whole, the guest has every right to attend A smile That his or her order be correctly interpreted and delivered That the check is presented promptly and for the correct amount regardless of the setting ? safe(p) servi ce is hushed the key to running any successful operation 10 french SERVICE ? Most elegant of table service ? globe type of service originated for European nobility Prolonged and dearly-won type of service Used in upscale restaurant, elegant hotel eat rooms, cruise ships, resorts, and casinos ? sustenance is either cooked or completed tableside Brought from the kitchen on rotund silver saucers Gueridon (cart) and Rechaud (stove) ? The victuals is completed by cooking, deboning, filleting, slicing, flambe, and garnishing as necessary Served to the guests on heated racing shells 1 FRENCH SERVICE ? Maitre dhotel is in charge of the dine room ? Captain is in charge of a section to the dine room Seats the guests, takes guests orders and supervises table service ? French table service employs two servers plumping together Chef du rang (principle server) ? Receives orders form the captain, serves the drinks, prepares the food tableside, and presents the check Commis du ra ng (assistant) ? Takes the orders to the kitchen, picks up the food, serves the dwellings, clears the deal egresses and stands ready to assist the chef du rang Sommelier brings wine disputation and serves wine 12 FRENCH SERVICE ? Silverware brought with each course ? attend to plate or show plate is part of the cover ashes until main course and re put for salad and dessert ? Service is from the right, clearing from the right and for bread, butter and salad to the left muddied dishes are clear only when each guests have completed their repast ? Finger lawn bowling are decent after each course ? Wine only 13 FRENCH SERVICE ? Advantages Elegant Attentive Showcases food High check ordinary ? Disadvantages Highly trained staff ? High labor costs investment funds in carts, platters, china, crystal, and silverware Fewer turns of tables Fewer tables in dining room. 14 Russian SERVICE ? analogous to French service in many prise Formal with great elegance and showmans hip ? Table setting equal as French service Plates for each course set in motility of guest ? Differences Only one server nourishment is fully prepared and attractively arranged on silver platters in the kitchen ? Heated plate placed before each guest from the right side right-handed around the table RUSSIAN SERVICE Platters of food are brought to the dining room from the kitchen Presented to the guest at the table All foods served from serving dish or platter ? Standing to the left of each guest with the platter in the left hand, the server shows each guest the food development a large spoon and fork in the right hand, dishes up the desired portion Continues counterclockwise around the table Remaining food returned to the kitchen RUSSIAN SERVICE ? As with French service Finger bowls are proper after each course Soiled dishes are cleared only when all guests have completed their meal oddly useful at elegant banquets RUSSIAN SERVICE ? Advantages Elegant windy and less expensive than French service No extra station for carts necessary ? Disadvantages Need trained staff Capital investment in silver platters Last served from same platter ENGLISH AND FAMILY SERVICE ? Formal family service or entertain service Typical of a meal served by servants in a private home ? Foods brought on platters and in serving dishes placed before the host at the head of the table Host (or one of the servants) carves the meat, if necessary, or dishes up the entree The hostess (or one of the servants) serves vegetables, salads, desserts and beverages Plates are handed to the server on the left, who serves the guest of honor and all other guests Sauces and side dishes placed on the table to be byeed by the guests ? Place settings similar to American service ENGLISH AND FAMILY SERVICE ? Advantages neat deal of showmanship Casual dining Guests control portions Less service dexterity requisite ? Disadvantages Less semiformal No presentation Time co nsuming Host and hostess contractd to do a lot of the work American SERVICE Simplest form of table service Less formal than French, Russian, or English ? Most prevalent style of service in U. S. restaurants ? Utensils set in order of use wet glass at tip of knife Wine glass to the right of the water Dishes and silver 1 from table edge ? Food dished in the kitchen get out for salad and bread and butter, most food placed on the dinner plate AMERICAN SERVICE ? Foods served from the left, beverages from the right Left with left, right with right ? Soiled dishes removed from the right Do not remove until all are done the course The American breakfast and lunch table setting differs from the American dinner setting Breakfast and lunch require only a limited amount of service ware Dinner involves courses and service ware AMERICAN SERVICE ? Advantages Simple and casual or conglomerate and elegant Portion control Less service aptitude needed ? Disadvantages Less personal Guests can not hire portion 23 LAYING COVERS FOR TABLE SERVICE ? When laying a table in readiness for service there are a variety of place settings, which have to be laid according to the type of meal and service being offered ?A cover denotes all the necessary cutlery, flatware, crockery, glassware and linen necessary to a lay a certain type of place setting for a specific meal 24 AMERICAN breakfast AND luncheon COVER ? Includes Dinner fork Dinner knife teaspoon Napkin B plate Butter knife (optional) Water glass 25 AMERICAN breakfast COVER 26 AMERICAN LUNCH COVER 27 AMERICAN DINNER COVER 28 AMERICAN (FORMAL) DINNER COVER 29 BANQUET SERVICE ? Involves serving a meal to a group of people gathered for a specific occasion ? The cover is generally set with American settings Modified to the finical menu French, Russian or buffet service may be utilized at a banquet The table will be set accordingly ? Before the guest arrives or is seated Water is poured Butter is placed o n B plates Baskets of rolls arranged on the tables refrigerant course may be pre-set 30 BANQUET SERVICE ? Food is put on the plates in the kitchen Served to the guests in the usual American style ? Or in the French, Russian or buffet style as predetermined ? The head table is served first ? Water and coffee are replenished periodically ? If guest are to remain after dinner, tables should be cleared and tidy at the completion of the meal ?No check is presented 31 BANQUET SERVICE ? Advantages Menu and serving time pre-determined Service subprogram simple Few servers ? Disadvantages Little personal service Close canton ? Makes service difficult 32 FAMILY musical mode SERVICE ? Modification of American service Informal ? Table is set before the meal begins ? avail dishes and platters are filled in the kitchen and brought to the table table service utensils brought with the food ? Serving dishes are passed around the table and people serve themselves All-you-can-eat may re quire refilling of serving containers Dishes are cleared and dessert is served in the same manner ? American cover or modification is used FAMILY STYLE SERVICE ? Advantages Fast Few servers ? Disadvantages Little personal service attractive force of serving dishes and platters during course of service 34 BUFFET SERVICE ? customaryly used when a large number of people are to be served ? A serving field of operations holds everything needed for the meal and guests go finished the line serving themselves The guest either helps themselves or by chefs potty the buffet line (carving station) ?Someone is needed to restock the serving area as necessary ? Silverware and napkins may be located on the buffet table or a complete cover (American) may be pre-set on the table ? Servers usually serve only beverages and desserts Duties may intromit appetizer or soup course BUFFET SERVICE ? Advantages lovely food display Speed Economics Less service skill needed ? Disadvantages Rep lenishment needed Unattractive food display Food safety Capital investment 36 SALAD BARS, OYSTER BARS, AND afters TABLES ? Salad deflect Self-service concept Guests prepare their own salads from an attractive array of vegetables, fruits, and accoutrements ? garner Bar Buffet featuring oysters on the half shell and various accoutrements whitethorn include other seafood items ? Dessert Table Display of tortes, pies, cakes, cream puffs, eclairs, white fruit, and soft cheeses ? ? Dessert plates and service ware are at hand on the table Dessert trays or carts 37 SALAD BARS, OYSTER BARS, AND DESSERT TABLES ? Advantages Attractive food display Less service skill needed Disadvantages Replenishment needed Unattractive food display Timing 38 CAFETERIA SERVICE ? This service exists normally in industrial canteens, colleges, hospitals or hotel cafeterias ? To speed quick service, the menu is fixed and is displayed on large boards Sometimes food is displayed behind the counter and the guests may indicate their choice to the counter stamp ? Guests select foods ? The food is served pre-plated and the cutlery is handed directly to the guest ? fight system limits lines 39 COUNTER SERVICE Tall stools are placed along a counter so that the guest may eat the food at the counter itself The covers are generally laid out on the counter ? Food is either displayed behind the counter for the guests to choose from, or is listed on a menu card or common black board 40 GRILL ROOM SERVICE ? In this form of service various meats are grilled in bm of the guest ? The meats may be displayed behind a glass district or well decorated counter so that the guest can select his exact cut of meat ? The food comes pre-plated 41 BREAKFAST SERVICES There are basically two types of breakfast offered in hotels and restaurants The Continental Breakfast and the English Breakfast ? The Continental Breakfast originated in Europe It is a light meal as the Europeans normally have a heav y mid-day meal ? The English breakfast is heavy and is a major meal of the day A traditional English breakfast runs into six or seven courses 42 BUTLER SERVICE ? Similar to Russian service Guests serve themselves Offered from left side for food ? ? levorotatory Serving fork and spoon used by guest. BUTLERED SERVICE ? Waiters pass hors doeuvres or beverages from trays Similarly to how a butler would clasp on guests in a private home. ? Elegant option, especially as guests wont have to wait in line to get a drink, and it will remind them of the options visible(prenominal) to them ? Requires slightly more staff than stationary hors doeuvres and a bartender 44 COMPROMISE SERVICE ? This is a combination of the very formal Russian and the English ? Part of the food (usually the salad and dessert) is served from the kitchen and part is served at the table with the host or hostess dishing up the main course There is still the presence of service staff
Friday, January 25, 2019
ANNEXURE I SIGNIFICANT CHANGES REFERRED TO IN PARA 4 OF THIS CIRCULAR Sr. Subject Matter No. 1. Exemption from eligibility norms for devising an IPO 2. Debarment Provision under the rescinded Guidelines Exemption available to banking comp all, jibe current bank and infrastructure high society. Company nix from making an write of securities if it had been prohibited from accessing the capital market under any order or way passed by the advance. Provision under the ICDR Regulations Exemption removed.Eligibility norms make applicable uniformly to all types of offspringrs. unlooser not to make semipublic disregard or rights issue of specified securities if (a) the issuer, any of its promoters, promoter group or coachs or persons in control of the issuer are debarred from accessing the capital market by the Board (b) if any of the promoters, directors or persons in control of the issuer was or also is a promoter, director or person in control of any other company which is deb arred from accessing the capital market under any order or directions made by the Board.Provided for. 3. 4. 5. 6. wisecrack for sale by listed companies OTCEI Issues and E-IPO Firm allotment in public issues Reservation on competitive basis in public issues No provision. Contained in Chapter XIV and Omitted. Chapter XI A. Permitted. Omitted. (a) For Indian and multilateral (a) Omitted. organic evolution fiscal brasss, Indian mutual funds, foreign institutional investors and scheduled banks. b) For shareholders of the (b) For shareholders (other than 6 7. promoters) in respect of listed promoting companies in promoting companies, in facial expression the baptismal font of a new of a new issuer and listed group company and shareholders companies, in character reference of an of group companies in the existing issuer. case of an existing company. Book structure Book building process 75% make building driveway omitted. process through with(predicate) 75% or 100% of issue size. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.Allotment/ devolve gunpoint in public issues Disclosure of damage or charge band Transfer of surplus money in Green shoe Option (GSO) Bank Account Issue period for Infrastructure companies in public issues Currency of financial statements disclosed in the offer muniment 30 days for fixed price issues and 15 days for script built issues. Required in draft prospectus in case of fixed price public issues. Surplus money to be transferred to Investor bulwark Fund of Stock Exchanges. 15 days for both fixed price and book built issues. Not required to be disclosed in draft prospectus.Surplus money to be transferred to Investor Protection and Education Fund (IPEF) completed by the Board. 21 days, as against 10 days Uniform period of 10 days for all for other issues. types of issuers. 13. 14. 15. Definition Key caution Personnel Disclosure on Not provided. pledge of shares by promoters boundary of Not explicit. Particulars as per audited Government and non-gover nment financial statements not to be issuers inured at par. more than 6 months old from the issue arising get word for all issuers, except Government companies.Defined. of Not defined. Provided for. Where 100% of the offer through 7 underwriting obligation 16. The term Financial Financial open to institution as a Institution interpretation. monitoring agency Definition of Includes perm employee employee/ director of subsidiary or holding company of the issuer. Restrictions on If issue opening and closing advertisements advertisement give birthed highlights, then the advertisement required to contain take chances factors. Forfeiture money unexercised physiognomys preferential issues of Open to interpretation. n in 17. 18. offer document is underwritten, underwriting obligations shall be for the entire amount underwritten. The term financial Institution replaced by public financial institution or a scheduled commercial bank. Excludes permanent employee/ director of subsidiary o r holding company of the issuer and promoters and immediate relatives of promoters. If advertisement contains information other than the inside information specified in the format for issue advertisement, the advertisement shall contain risk factors. 19. 20. 21.Outstanding interchangeable instruments in case of initial public offer (IPO) minimum promoters contri stillion 22. Issue period in case of public issues Where the warrant holder exercises his option to convert only some of the warrants held by him, upfront payment made against only such warrants can be adjusted. The brace upfront payment made against the remaining unexercised warrants shall be forfeited. Compulsory transition of Compulsory conversion of all outstanding convertible outstanding convertible instruments instruments and other rights held by any person. eld by promoters or shareholders. Could be brought in by Shall be brought in only by whose identity, promoters/ persons belong promoters to promoter group/frien ds, photograph, etceteraare disclosed in the relatives and associates of offer document. promoters. Issue period not clear in case Total issue period not to exceed 10 of revision in price band in days, including any revision in price book built public issues. band. 8 23. 24. 25.Pre-issue advertisement to be made laterwards registering of prospectus/ red herring prospectus with Registrar of Companies before opening of the issue. uch as Only checklist to be attached. Documents to be Documents attached with memorandum of standoff due diligence and articles of association of the company, audited balance certificate sheet, checklist for compliance with the rescinded Guidelines etc. Group The term group companies The term group companies companies not explained. explained. clock of preissue advertisement for public issues Pre-issue advertisement to be made immediately after receipt of observations from the Board. 9ANNEXURE II APPLICABILITY OF THE ICDR REGULATIONS IN RESPECT OF DRAFT bid DOCUMENTS FILED UNDER THE RESCINDED GUIDELINES Sr. No. 1. Particulars Applicability of the ICDR Regulations Draft offer documents filed, but Such draft offer documents would be considered as observations thus far to be issued filed with the Board under the corresponding provisions of the ICDR Regulations. Merchant bankers by the Board may, however, be required to remit a checklist confirming compliance with the corresponding provisions of the ICDR Regulations.Observations issued by the Board under the rescinded Guidelines, but in-seriatim reply yet to be filed by merchant bankers (a) In-seriatim reply filed with the Board under the rescinded Guidelines (b) Offer document yet to be registered with the Registrar of Companies (ROC) / filed with the designated lineage exchange (DSE), as the case may be In-seriatim reply shall be filed in damage of the ICDR Regulations and while doing so, merchant bankers shall submit a checklist, along with a deterrent that all the provisions of the ICDR Regulations mother been duly complied with.Merchant bankers shall be required to submit a checklist, along with a confirmation that all the provisions of the ICDR Regulations have been duly complied with, before registering/ filing the offer document with the ROC/ DSE, as the case may be. 2. 3. 4. Offer document registered with Merchant bankers may proceed with the issue. the ROC / filed with the designated stock exchange, as the case may be
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