Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Hung Liu: Artist Biography

Hung Liu: Artist Biography Hung Liu is one of the popular artists born in Changchun China in 1948. She studied Mural painting as a graduate student at the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing soon. After her birth, her dad an officer in Chiang Kai Sheiks Nationalist Army was capture. In addition, her mom was compelled to divorce him to ensure herself and a newborn child. Hung Liu subject throughout the year has been a prostitute, refugee, road entertainer, troopers, workers, and the prisoner and so on. Liu immigrated to the United States in 1984. She is a class of 1986 alumna of the University of California, San Diego. As a painter Liu, challenge the narrative specialist of authentic Chineses photographs by subjecting them to be the more thoughtful procedure of painting. A great part of the importance of Lius canvas originates from the way the washes and drips, disintegrate the narrative pictures, recommending the section of memory into history while attempting to reveal the cultural and narrative fixed Washing her subjects in veils of dripping linseed oil, she both Preserves and decimates the picture. Liu has imagined a kind of authenticity that surrenders to the disintegration of memory and the progression of time, while also bringing faded photographic images clearly to life as rich, easy works of art. She summons the apparitions of history to the present. As a result, Liu transforms old photos into new works of art two-time beneficiary of a National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship in painting, Liu additionally got a Lifetime Achievement Award in Printmaking from the Southern Graphics Council International in 2011. A review of Lius work, Summoning Ghosts: The Art and Life of Hung Liu, was as of late sorted out by the Oakland Museum of California, and is booked to visit broadly through 2015. In a review of that show, the Wall Street Journal called Liu the best Chinese painter in the US. Lius works have been shown broadly and gathered by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, th e Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, and the Los Angeles County Museum etc. Liu right now lives in Oakland, California. She is Professor Emerita at Mills College, where she has educated since 1990. As, her artwork are very popular. I have illustrated two of them. The first one is Three Fujins which is representational work of art. The main subject matter of this painting is all about the three Chinese women sitting on the birdcage on their hand. This work of art has depended more on complexity between two kinds of contrasting line. Controlled represent power and other is free and liberated. The mask-like faces of these women seemed to be a depiction of women bound by the system in which they live. These women are being pampered as royalty and as a slaves at same time. Similarly, the three birdcages on the painting represent their spiritual captivity. Their excessively unified formality of their pose is in perfect balance its repetitious and has rhythm in it. It represents their submission to the rule of the tyrannical social forces. Showing they have given themselves up in order to fit their prescribed roles. The second artwork, I am have chosen is the Virgin/Vessels by Hung Liu. The type of artwork for this painting is Oil on canvas. In this work of art, there is one privileged Chinese woman tottered by Chinese Convention of foot authoritative. In the photo, she is sitting like a statue with a photo of prostitution. She is very not able to walk because of her foot. The women body seems like a sexual vessel in the photo. Indeed, even her outfits on the photo uncover a similar thing about the women. Through this photo, painter Liu has possessed the capacity to make sense of the more terrible circumstance of women, even the ladies from the privileged family were constrained for the prostitution. In this work of art, Liu has exceptionally stressed on differentiation method for painting. The exceptionally pitiful, pure and miserable appearance of the face of the women depict a hard time of the nineteen century. References Bio. HUNG LIU. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2017. Rucker, Raven. Three Fujins by Hung Liu. Prezi.com. N.p., 20 Sept. 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2017.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Rastafari Culture The Extreme Ethiopian Rasta Vs. The Mellow Dallas Ras

Rastafari Culture The Extreme Ethiopian Rasta Vs. The Mellow Dallas Rasta Many people throughout the world have a hard time understanding what it means to be a Rasta. For some their troubles in understanding Rasta’s come because they look as Rastafari as only a religion. When one does this they run into many problems. This is because Rastafari is much more than a religion. It is a way of life, a social movement, as well as a mind set. Another reason why western people have a hard time understanding Rastafari is because the movement lacks the structure that the western world is use to. A lot of people’s understanding of Rasta’s only goes as far as to think that Rasta’s are people that live in Jamaica, smoke weed, and have Dreadlocks. These people do not begin to think what is behind the movement. The idea that Rastafari is strictly Jamaican is also very wrong. Since the origination of Rastafari, the Rasta movement has expanded far beyond the island of Jamaica. Rasta’s now live all over the world. There are Rasta cultures in all parts of Europe, Asia, New Zealand, United States, and especially Africa. This paper seeks to explain Rastafari and to show it’s expansion by exposing Rasta’s culture from it’s most holy form in Ethiopia to one of it’s least holy in Dallas Texas. The Development of Rastafari The Rastafari movement stems from the teachings of the great Jamaican leader and motivator of masses, Maces Garvey. Garvey told the African people of the world to unite and to return to African, the homeland. Garvey’s vision was for the â€Å"Blacks to overcome their feelings of inferiority and build upon their own unique and evolving culture, and ultimately return to Africa to redeem their homeland and to build a future... ...own That Rasatafarians Built.† Ethiopian World Federation June 1 2002 Dubb, Adjua. â€Å"Rastrari Way of Life† JahWorks.org Nicholas, Tracy. Rastafari A Way of Life (Pamphlet no other info given) Jones, Linda. â€Å"The Rasta Way – Dallas Rastafarian community steadfastly pratices an often misunderstood religion† 08/11/96 Niceup April 4 2002 Lewis, William. Soul Rebels The Rastafari. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press, Inc., 1993 â€Å"Rastafari Campaigner Taking Cannabis Case To African Commission† South African Press Association 20 March 2002

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Footbinding in China Essay

Fashion and clothing has been part of cultures through out the world. Many cultures distinguish themselves from other cultures through their clothing. Since the beginning of time, people have been known to have three basic needs. These are food, clothing and shelter. Clothing has evolved from just plain bundles of leaves to cover the sensitive areas of a person to sophisticated dresses today. Clothing plays a big role in cultures and it also gives distinction to people with power or its social status. The social norm we have even in the ancient times is that women are inclined to be conscious of their fashion and clothing while men are less inclined to theses kinds of interests. Cloths have been used to showcase the prestige and wealth of people. In the ancients times, the chief of ancient villages wear the most extravagant and exotic cloths. The Chinese’s emperor wore cloths made from the finest fabrics and most expensive materials in the world. That being said, nobility in the European regions also wore cloths with distinct designs as signs of their power and wealth. The importance of clothing involves also the battle of sexes. Women are thought to be cautious of their dresses or clothing. The female gender has been said to be the fashionable of the two sexes. According to Jennifer Craik, author of a book regarding fashion, â€Å"Women are fashionable but men are not†. Men on the other hand are more focus on the procurement of money and power. In medieval times, men used to be the ones doing business, finding jobs for their family and providing for the household. Women in return were domesticated and lived lives in service of their husbands. The value of clothing as a commodity is often times the one we see. Clothing provides more than just a need but it is also a part of our lifestyles. Clothing can give us various information. It can tell you if a person’s mood, personality and social status. People who are not that rich often don’t wear extravagant expensive cloths. People who are in big businesses and are rich wear nice and more expensive cloths. Ladies who are in the mood to have fun and mingle with men would wear revealing and sexy dresses. Women who are not in the mood to have fun would rather wear plain clothing that does not attract that big attention. Clothing plays big roles in various cultures. In China, there used to be a famous practice among Chinese families. In between the 10th century to the early 20th century the Chinese culture has a practice that involved little girls aged 4-7 to undergo a ritual called foot binding. The goal of the practice is to achieve a â€Å"lotus foot†. Lotus foot is deformed foot in which foot binding was done. The start or origin of foot binding has no clear historical text that explains its beginnings. Stories from historians believe that a certain prince in the Tang dynasty had a concubine with little feet and it became a trend among people in that time to have small feet. Tang dynasty was famous for their dancers who had small feet. The practice was famous among the higher class societies in the Qing dynasty. â€Å"†¦many women in China did not bind their feet due to ethnic and class barriers. It remained primarily an elite upper-class until the eighteenth and nineteenth century†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Ko, 2002, p. 12). The foot binding practice is done by wrapping the child’s feet until she is at an age of late adolescent. The feet are wrapped s tight that it will not allow the feet to grow over 6 inches in length. The result of this practice is permanent damage the feet of women who underwent the ritual. The foot is prone to infection and diseases. In the process of foot binding, the foot usually gets fractured and deformed. Women that were footbinded would walk in a manner where they would sway in a particular form while walking since they have deformed feet. The Chinese cultured was said to see this kind of walk as sexy and erotic. They call this kind of walk â€Å"lotus gait†. The reason for foot binding is always a question even historians can’t give a definite answer. Some people say this practice is done to make sure the women who are subjected to footbinding will be forever dependent to their family or husband. We should also take note that the Chinese culture is famous for arranged marriage. This means that the family of the male usually buys or arranges the marriage of heir son to a girl even before they reached adolescent. The practice could signify the dependency and submission of the girl to her husband. For some who practices this kind of ritual, it is also a sign of chastity in the part of the girl. The main question now is if this kind of practice is a turn on and sexual fetish or not at all. Based on historical context, the Chinese culture in ancient times valued males over females. Emperors, traders, educated citizen etc were always males. Females were viewed as their sexual object and only left at home to be housewives. The male dominated society of China sees footbinding as a form of foot fetish. Foot fetish comes in a form of submission. Like many sexual fetishes, submission in Asian culture is one dominant fetish. For binding is not forced upon the female sex. In fact, it is usually parents that initiate this kind of practice so their daughter can get a good husband in the future. This practice is a kind of submission because it makes the females owned by their husbands or lover. The feet have been one of the fetishes of humanity. The shape and contour plus the fact that it is hidden make it more exciting in terms of sexual excitement. Many cultures see the feet as sexy and erotic. Foot fetish could also be the cause why footbinding started. It could be that Chinese culture in the past sees small feet and â€Å"lotus gait† as seductive and sexually exciting. The foot binding ritual is a proof that the foot is also an erotic part of the body. We usually find things hidden or kept from us exciting. Like the breast and genitals, the feet of girls are also hidden most of the time. This is why footbinding is a form of erotism and a form of foot fetish. Fetishes come in various forms in different cultures and era. It just so happens that the foot fetish in ancient china used this kind of body modification to gratify their lust for foot fetish. Although many people protested even in the 10th century regarding this unnatural practice, the practice was done till the late 20th century. The practice became really popular because in the time when foot binding was rampant, husbands tend to choose girls with small feet. Mothers think that in order for their child to have husbands; they have to have small feet. The only way to prevent it from growing is to bind it. In a way, it is also being sexually attractive. To further explain this, our generation today sees women who are well endowed with nice breast as more attractive. Girls who are not endowed with nice breast opt to have breast enlargement surgery to be more confident and attractive. It has always been the battle of self-esteem. Girls who are inferior in terms of sexual attractiveness will most likely marry and have a partner in life. The foot binding practice is not far from cosmetics surgery today. As we know, humans are sexual beings. The feet is one part of the body we seldom incorporate with sex but the truth is that many people sees the feet as erotic and arousing. Many literatures tell us how the foot can elicit sexual energy. In Qing dynasty, they had a manual in which it teaches 48 different ways of playing with the feet. This clearly shows that erotism through the feet is one of the reasons why footbinding was done. There can be many reasons why footbinding is done. Erotism, foot fetish, battle of sexual attractiveness of women, a way to ensure the future of a girl through a marriage because of being sexually attractive or it can also be just culture itself. â€Å"†¦foot fetishes likens a woman with bound feet to a ballerina soaring on toes or a person wearing a six inch heels†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Ko, 2002, p10. ) The fact that this kind of practice is not mandatory and they are done even by parents shows that this practice starts out to be not a submissive practice in nature but can turn into a form of submission later on. If a man marries the girl because he is attracted sexually with her feet then it can be said that the girl submitted to the husband due to her feet’s â€Å"attractiveness†. Another way of seeing this is that footbinding would not be a fad and practice if men in china did not show any inclination to girls with small feet. Today, footbinding is almost non-existent even in china. The Manchu had a campaign against it and it was seen as a bad practice. In the 20th century, the western countries created another foot fetish kind of fad. This is the high heeled shoes. Although footbinding is not similar to wearing high heels, some of the reasons of using high heels are the same as footbindings. The similarities of these practices are that both of them are sources of foot fetish erotism . Both footbinding and high heels gives emphasis on the beauty of the feet. It makes it more erotic and sexual. Wearing high heels makes women stick their buttock out and walks a sexy gait. Footbinding also makes women walk in a sexy gait. The differences of these two are quite more than their similarities. In terms of period of practice, the foot fetish is practices at the 9th century to 19th century. The high heels was started at around 14th century in France. The place and continent in which these were created was also different. It was an asian practice while the other is European or western. The permanency of wearing high heels ends after removing the shoe while footbiding is permanent. High heel shoes does seem to have lots of negative effects on the body especially the back but it can be helped by avoiding it. Footbinding is a permanent state. The damage done to the foot is irreversible and the pain is also far more than high heels. The decision of wearing a high heeled should depend on the person while mothers are the ones who decide if their daughter will be footbinded. Footbind tends to be a submission in nature while high heels can make women submissive or dominant in terms of nature of the wearing it. While there are similarities, footbinding and wearing high heels are different. It can be called modern day footbinding in terms of its erotic appearance but the permanent damage done by footbinding to please men is far too extreme. I would compare cosmetic surgery to footbinding more than wearing high heels. Today women undergo surgeries just to please their confidence that they are attractive to men. These practices make us realize that humans have the tendency to do extreme behaviors in terms of pleasing the other sex and society. In conclusion, after the removal of foot binding in china, women today in china does not need to undergo this kind of practice to be respected. They are seen to be equal to men and are starting to be a dominate proponent of social change. Women today are not anymore pressured to have small feet just to ensure men will like them. The image of women as sex object is slowly being replaced by great women who influence the Chinese society. Footbinding is part of China’s ancient practices. It serves as a lesson that humans can do extremes things to their body just to please others. It is a part of china’s history that shows us how out world today understands and accepts that men and women are created equally and must be treated similarly. References Jackson, Beverly. Splendid slipper: A Thousand years of an erotic tradition. Ten speed Press, 1997. Ko, Dorothy. Every Step a Lotus: Shoes for bound feet. California: University of California Press, 2001. Leganeur, J. J. â€Å"All About Wearing High Heels. † 31 August 2003. â€Å"East (Chinese) Footbinding vs. West (French) High Heels. †18 May 2008 . Levy, Howard S. The Lotus lovers:prometeus books. New York, 1992. Nosotro, R. â€Å"Change over time Essay†. 2000. â€Å"Women in China†. 18 May 2008. . Riello, Gregorio and Mcneil, Peter. Shoes. Berg, 2006.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Death Penalty Essay - 1050 Words

The death penalty or capital punishment is an issue that has sparked controversy and anxiety in today’s society. Capital punishment refers to â€Å"a sentence of death by execution†, for the crimes committed. In order to receive the death penalty an individual needs to commit certain types of crimes known as â€Å"capital crimes† or â€Å"capital offences†. Capital crimes include treason, perjury, kidnapping, rape, terrorism and murder. Today, executions are carried out by either a lethal injection or electrocution. Countries like the United States can allow the convict to have a degree of â€Å"amnesty† by letting the convict choose other methods such as a gas chamber, hanging or even a firing squad. Although a vast majority are against the death penalty .†¦show more content†¦For example: the US has a prison of approximately 2.2 million but only 3,000 are condemned to death (amnesty). Even is all of these prisoners on death row were to be executed, it would make no â€Å"discerning difference† in making the society safer or even in the entire prison population. Also, the death penalty makes mistakes by giving the condemned unfair trials, and just looking at the crimes he/she has committed. One of the most controversial cases in the history of death penalty was the case of Phillip Workman. Phillip Workman, aged 53, was executed by lethal injection in Tennessee on May 9, 2007. Despite crucial evidence in which a key state witness lied at his trial and that Lieutenant Ronald Oliver, the police officer that Phillip Workman was convicted of killing, may have been accidentally shot by a fellow officer (amnesty). Even though there was evidence on behalf of him, the jury still processed the execution by giving him death row for 25 years and then the execution. 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