Saturday, August 31, 2019
Core Knowledge Using what you learned about brain development in Chapter 4, explain why intensive intervention for poverty-stricken children starting in the first 2 years has a greater long-term impact on IQ than intervention at a later age. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s brain development is very critical in its first 2 years. A childs brain develops dramatically during the first 2 years. Ã¢â¬Å"During the first two years neural fibers synapses increase at an outstanding pace.Because of developmenting neuron requires space for these cognitive structures a surprising aspect of brain growth is that as synapses form many surrounding neurons die 20-80 percent, depending on the brain region. Ã¢â¬ When a child is living in a low poverty environment it affects the childÃ¢â¬â¢s brain since the neurons are not being stimulated by their caregivers. Looking at a caregiver who does not interact with a child a young age the child will have less interaction with a person. This correlates with a childÃ¢â¬ â¢s IQ. When neurons are seldom stimulated they lose their synapses in a process called synaptic pruning.About 40 percent synapses are pruned during childhood. Ã¢â¬Å"About half of brains volumes consist of gilal cells which are responsible for myelination. The Development through the lifespan book talks about children who are adopted have a greater chance to better nutrition and health. The book also talks about stress. Chronic stress of early deprived orphanage rearing disrupts the brains capacity to manage stress, with long-term physical and psychological consequences. Reference Berk, L. (2009) Development through the lifespan. Allyn & Bacon; 5 edition. 2009
Friday, August 30, 2019
In this task I am going to explain the developments in internet technology, describe the benefits of an online presence and give examples of businesses that enjoy these benefits and finally explain the advantages of to businesses of having an online presence rather than having a purely offline presence. Broadband and other developments Nowadays, broadband connections enable data to be transferred much faster than narrowband. The connection does not tie up a normal phone line. The user can choose get online by an ADSL connection, a cable line, wireless or via satellite dish. Also the internet is low cost and is increasing in speed which benefits the commerce online. The new portable devices such as PDA offer the user easy internet access at any time. 80% of the UK can get broadband by ADSL and cable. Most of people use internet every day which enables a great share of data. Secure payments The increase of security enables the use of credit/debit card facilities. But the newspapers and magazine headlines about fraud and hackers quite obviously put people off. To be secured, all the online payments need to be private and confidential between the buyer and the seller, conveyed intact and without any changes during transmission and erased from the system after the process has been completed. The banks are increasing the security of the debit/credit cards of the user. To purchase an item online the user need to key in the password and the date of birth. Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) is a standard protocol for securing credit card transactions over insecure networks, the Internet. SET is not itself a payment system, but rather a set of security protocols and formats that enables users to employ the existing credit card payment infrastructure on an open network in a secure fashion. When the cardholder buys online the credit card company authenticates the card via digital signature. This proves that the cardholder is genuine. Web authoring tools Nowadays there are a number of web authoring tools such as the Microsoft FrontPage program which enables the user to create a website without any specialist knowledge. There are other programs such as the Dreamweaver, Fireworks and Flash technology used to create the effects and designs in a website. Businesses can easily build their website, which enables them to create a service online. Benefits of an online presence A web business presence have global Ã¢â¬Å"roundÃ¢â¬ visibility which means they never close and are available from any location in the world at 24 hours 7 days a week. This benefit can increase the opportunity of trading of the website. Some examples of websites that enjoy this benefit are www.sainsburys. co. uk, www. amazon. co. uk and www. argos. co. uk. Some businesses operating online have opportunity of expansion to access to a wide range of customers especially from abroad. If the business offers an excellent service the opportunity is maximised. But there are worries for example the tariff barriers, quotas and environmental regulations. This is not a problem in the European Community as the goods can be freely traded between member states. Some websites that enjoy this benefit are www. ebay. com, www. hp. com, www. dell. com. A Small business with a good service and well designed can compete with larger businesses. There is an equality of presence regardless of size of business. The costumer never looks on the size of the business only on the service and product provided. Therefore a small business can compete with a larger one. Some websites that enjoy this benefit are www. zonepoint. co. uk and www. computeradvicecentre. com. A web business presence has the benefit of a rapid response to customer interest. But some firms donÃ¢â¬â¢t take advantage of this benefit. A web can provide several opportunities for customer contact for example the email messages. The speed of response is very important. A response over the internet is faster than the response by phone or letter. An online business presence enjoying this benefit is www. ebuyer. com. A web business presence has the opportunity to analyse online competition. It is quicker and easier to compare competitor activities online than by visiting their stores or obtaining information offline. Also the internet enables businesses to check new competitors and their market share. Businesses operating online have opportunity to keep up with customers. Businesses can check competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s status and then they can improve the product or service offered, speed of the delivery or the design of the website. The internet has made the life much easier. Achieving a responsive integrated supply chain A supply chain contains every single business that is involved in the eventual supply of a product or service. But there are problems associated with the supply chain. If the chain is long the price to the customer may be high and the chain is usually slow to respond to a rapid change. To combat these problems businesses tried to change the supply chain to shorten it, this is done by cutting out or by passing as many intermediaries, and to integrate it, to speed the things by changing the information in one stage to another. An example of business that has a simple and short supply chain is Dell. Dell manufactures computers and sells them online directly to the buyers. This means there are no wholesales and no need for retail shops. This speeds things up and reduces the final price to the customer. If the businesses improve their supply chain there many benefits that follows. Businesses can offer punctual delivery as a sales feature. The seller will have more control over delivery if the supply chain is short and integrated. One example of a business operating online that has this benefit is Dell. co. uk Other benefit is the opportunity for buying the products online. Businesses can improve the product delivery and reduce the time between the order and supply. Customers can check stocks online. If an item is currently out of stock many businesses put a note on the site and email the customer when stocks are replenished. One example of a business that has this benefit is ebuyer. com. Ebuyer is a business like Dell. It sells directly to the buyer; there is no need for retail shops. Online order tracking is another benefit. It enables the customers to check every stage of their order from the supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s website. The system sends automatically email to customer informing about tracking order. In other systems customers can check at any time the progress of the order. Ebuyer. com is a business operating online that enjoys this benefit. Businesses can reduce overheads and labour costs. A business that has a short and an integrated supply chain has more possibilities to process the orders more cheaply. This is because there is likely to be fewer staff required to process paperwork relating to customer orders, fewer shops required if the business deals directly to the customer, fewer intermediaries required and fewer staff needed to deal with the customer. Ebuyer and Dell are two examples of businesses that enjoy this benefit. Reduced stockholding Businesses can improve cash flow through fewer bad debts. Cash flow improves if the customer is paying as they make a purchase. The transactions over the internet are done by credit or debit card. The card payment is always checked and authorised before the goods are dispatched. Ebuyer. com can choose where to locate. Ebuyer only trades over the internet. It has more freedom in choosing the location than other types of businesses. A business can save money with affiliations with ISPs and portals. This works as the following: a business wants to show the location of the company, the business can do an affiliation using multimap to show it. One example is the BT website. Other benefit is the accessibility to different users. Disabled and housebound people have more advantages to shop at home over the internet. Also people who live in rural and remote areas donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to worry to go a shopping trip. Only one Ã¢â¬Å"clickÃ¢â¬ can save money and time. Nowadays is increasing availability of public web access points. The internet kiosks and cybercafi s are a common feature in all large towns and cities. They enable anyone without a pc, or away from home, to access the internet easily. Also the pocked PcÃ¢â¬â¢s and the portable computers, laptops, enable the access to internet at any time. Advantages of to businesses of having an online presence rather than having a purely offline presence Tesco are ale to sell a lot more groceries as they have both their stores and the home delivery service than Primark which only sells its product to customers who came into their stores. Tesco website would operate globally as well as locally for relatively little extra cost. Tesco can get a wide range of customers because they can buy online at any time. People donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to worry to go for shopping. Only by one Ã¢â¬Å"clickÃ¢â¬ people can shop online. Also disabled people would prefer to shop online. Primark website only offers the information about the products and where to find retail outlets. In my point of view an online presence has more advantages than a purely offline presence. An online presence can get more customers selling online than an offline presence. The customers are very important for a business because without them a business can close. In conclusion, I mentioned the benefits of an online presence and the advantages of an online presence rather than a purely offline presence. BTEC First in Business Unit 8: Business Online.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
DonÃ¢â¬â¢t just copy what your teachers write on the board, either: take extensive notes on everything. Notes should be short, and if possible get pens with colored ink because it aids the memory. These notes can help you to remember when you are studying. Review your notes every night, so when the big test comes, remembering what you learned is a snap. Priority You have to prioritize what is the most important.. if go out with your friends or stay at home to study. Stay organized Organizing your things help you remember to bring your supplies and your homework to class and to your house to do your homework or studying. Ask your teacher if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand something You have to evacuate doubts, after class or immediately Asking questions will improve your grades and help your understanding. Plan ahead Always plan the assignment beforehand. Always get the assignment, homework or project finished at least 1 whole day before to deliver it your teacher. It is not a good idea finish the work in class it is not going to be as good as your work in your house. Study Study! DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time, do your work and take notes. When taking tests, relax If youÃ¢â¬â¢re, or worried that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll fail the test, youÃ¢â¬â¢re sure to get a low score. If you studied for it long enough that you know the information, then you shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be worried about getting a low grade. You may have to cut down on happiness and fun in order to succeed. The best students know how to say, Ã¢â¬Å"No, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t hang out because I have to study. But remember that it is important to balance out your studies and social life. Consequences If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t worry about your grades and donÃ¢â¬â¢t push yourself to do the right things,,, it is probably that you drop outÃ¢â¬ ¦ drugs, pregnancy, quarrels with your parents those are only examples that how you can be affected by your gradesÃ¢â¬ ¦ and also an important thing it is that in the future you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to find a good job As we saw through this presentation, we can do a lot of things for improving our gradesÃ¢â¬ ¦ it is only a matter of effortÃ¢â¬ ¦ later you are going to see your achievements and you are going to be able to do whatever you want, work in a good company or have your own business. So I hope that you value this information and do the right thing.
Luxury as a Requirement - Essay Example The joy and luxury only come about after a long battle for dynasty with the help of God to establish the dynasty. Only time can fade away the memory of the establishment of the dynasty, leading the new generation to forget about the struggle and spirit of togetherness leading to the destruction of the kingdom. Further still, once power is vested in a given royal family, it is passed over to the next generation granting them the luxury of leadership. At a given point after the establishment of the dynasty, the memory of the establishment will fade away. The fading of memory will give way for the people having a new look at their leader and his family. Resultantly, all members of the royal family are considered as leaders. The leadership is shared in the family with less support of the group feeling required, but rather obedience of the people to the government. The help of outsiders in establishing the government may be necessary to retain power. Luxury in the royal family can still be maintained by having influence over other nations in the neighborhood. In some cases, the group feeling of the leader is so strong that it attracts other nations to believe and trust in the leadership of the given leader. As such, when the leader desires to leave the kingdom, other nations embrace them and a re willing to submit to their power thus the leader retains their leadership position in a foreign land. Furthermore, religion has a major role to play in the success of leadership based on group feeling. The royal leaders derive their power from being superior as the people lift them up in the spirit of togetherness. However, it is not easy to divert the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mind from the pleasures and treasures of the world to oneness in the interest of the whole group. It is only God who is able to bring the people together in sound mind to disregard worldly pleasure and pursue the interest of the community,
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Medication adherence with clients with schizophrenia - Essay Example The prevalence of medication non-adherence has been reported to be almost half of the total population of patients with schizophrenia (Tabor & Lopez, 2004). The prevalence could even be higher considering that the figures do not count patient with schizophrenia who decline treatment or quit routine check-up. Hence, a frequent cause of treatment failure is medication non-adherence, and the most widespread kind of non-adherence is inadequate use of these drugs. The consequences of non-adherence involve disruption of work activities and home life, re-hospitalization, and recurrence of psychotic symptoms. Monitoring adherence to medications and evaluating side effects is an important medical task when caring for patients with schizophrenia (Higashi et al., 2013). This essay reviews the literature on medication adherence and non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia. Determinants of non-adherence to medication can be classified into four, namely, patient-based aspects (e.g. gender, age , income, education), health-based aspects (e.g. substance abuse, duration of ailment, symptomatology), aspects related to antipsychotic medication, and socio-environmental aspects (e.g. social support, relationship between healthcare provider and patient). The literature review of Higashi and colleagues (2013) explains that there are numerous studies that investigated the correlation between socio-demographic factors (e.g. gender, age, education) and medication non-adherence but discovered no consistent relationship. There are findings revealing that adolescents are less likely to adhere to medication than their older counterparts. Several studies have discovered no relationship between gender and non-adherence, but some researchers, like Tunnicliffe and associates (1992 as cited in Higashi et al., 2013), discovered that females have a greater tendency than males to adhere to anti-psychotic medication. It has also been reported that certain ethnic minority groups, such as African A mericans, tend to be noncompliant. But there are other researchers, such as Owen and colleagues (1996 as cited in Higashi et al., 2013), who found no correlation between ethnicity and medication non-adherence. The researchers conclude that almost all studies report little or no correlation between socio-demographic factors and medication adherence. Lack of insight is a major attribute of individuals with schizophrenia. It is easy to understand why individuals with poor awareness have showed a greater risk for noncompliance to medication. There is no definite explanation of awareness in psychotherapy, but usually, it means understanding of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sickness and its outcomes or effects (Kozuki & Froelicher, 2003). Rusch and Corrigan (2002) enumerate four features of awareness: cognitive features, adherence based features, symptom based features, and temporal features. Lack of awareness has major therapeutic, clinical, and social significance. Nevertheless, its repercussions on med ication adherence are most vital in the recovery period of schizophrenia. The patientÃ¢â¬â¢s extent of awareness of the disorder is directly associated with his/her attitudes toward or beliefs about the treatment. Rusch and Corrigan (2002) found out that psychological coping mechanism and neurocognitive problems may worsen lack of awareness. They also discovered that awareness predicted adherence to psychosocial therapies for
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Assignment Example Social media is operational and intertwined into the entire organization with operations, marketing, and PR all playing a role in the overall social strategy for TacoÃ¢â¬â¢s. Chipotle way of beating competition is recruiting top performing employees to ensure that the experience the organization provides is exceptional and highly regarded. Its restaurants are operationally efficient and pleasing. It constantly increases the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness and regards the environment highly. The company uses classic cooking methods and has a unique interior design. The corporate strategy the company has used is that it has aggressively marketed low prices to attract customers to visit more often (Mertens, p. 18). The company is interested in how food is prepared and seeks out to pay for what they recognize as better. ChipotleÃ¢â¬â¢s value customers and that is why they are unwilling to compromise on serving delicious foods. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s aims to deliver quality foods coupled with high quality ingredients. The company continuously strives to evolve in order to maintain competitive
Monday, August 26, 2019
Organizational Design and Culture - Essay Example Earlier Home Depot was following decentralized organizational process. Due to increasing competition within the market place the organization decided to bring change in the organizational design. They transformed to centralization process in order to concentrate the decision making authority at the higher levels within the organization. Maintain appropriate balance between the centralization and decentralization process is huge challenge for several leading global organizations. Home Depot is one of the global retail giant. The organization has more than 2000 retail stores across the globe (Griffin, 2007). This centralization process allows the store managers to undertake several decisions independently and autonomously. Therefore, it can be stated that each retail outlet of Home Depot has entrepreneurial work culture. This process helped to save lot of money and increase business productivity. This centralization process helps the company to reduce operational cost as the company ne gotiates effective discounts from the existing suppliers. Home Depot follows flatter organizational hierarchy. The organizational hierarchy of Home Depot consists of few layers. Flatter organizational hierarchy helps an organization to provide its employees huge level of self actualization and greater satisfaction needs. At the same point of time there are several disadvantages too. Due to limited management layers, this organizational structure cannot provide effective advancement opportunity to the employees. Home Depot implemented multidivisional structure in their departmentalization process. This divisional structure helps to represent several unique employees, geographic locations, customers, products and services for the organizations. For an example, a marketing executive within an organization with a divisional organizational structure may be in the charge of promotional planning, and scheduling and executing a marketing research for a particular product line controlled by that executiveÃ¢â¬â¢s division. Formalization structure is one of the important and effective tools of Home DepotÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational design. Formalization structure helps to develop effective rules and regulations. It controls the employee behavior. This formalization structure helped Home Depot to provide the organizational direction to the employees. Due to this structure the employee behavior becomes more predictable. This structure helps the employees to follow the specific guideline or legal organizational procedure of an organization in a critical situation. This strategy is generally utilized in the service industry. Mechanism structure is another organizational design tool of Home Depot. This organizational structural tool is very much centralized and formalized. Home Depot follows formal communication process with the help of this structure. This structure forces the employees to follow discipline and take effective responsibility depending upon the job role. This st ructure helps an organization to maximize the organizational efficiency and minimize the operational cost. Question 2 Home Depot employed an effective corporate culture in order to support the business strategies. The organization follows cluster strategy to utilize the work group in the organization. It helps to accomplish the future goals and objectives of the organization. The managers help the employees to work collaboratively. The store managers divide the
Sunday, August 25, 2019
What do The Bell Jar and Catcher in the Rye identify as the main concerns of the 1950s for young people - Essay Example Holden Caulfield, the protagonist of Catcher in the Rye and Esther, the protagonist of The Bell Jar are characters deeply rooted in this conflicting and confusing time. It is probably no accident, then, that both these characters seek professional help in dealing with what may be madness or insanity, or what must may be the stress of living in a time that is not easily understood or explained. Women in America went to work after the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the entry into World War II, and many of them decided that they liked it; American men took it upon themselves in the 1950s to attempt the enforced removal repression of that desire to remain at work. Until America joined the war to fight the dreaded Hun (and the Japanese) in the latter part of 1941, women as a rule really hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t had much of a choice in terms of vocation. Unless they were raised on the farm, women basically had the choice of becoming a wife and possibly mother, or, if they desired to enter the work force, taking a job in one of the male-approved female jobs such as secretary or nursing. With the depletion of male work force into the service from 1941 to 1945, women all over the country got a taste of what it was like to work in a variety of jobs ranging from factory worker to professionals. As Tucker writes, women in the 40s were Ã¢â¬Å"commonly portrayed as performing her patriotic dutyÃ¢â¬ âtaking a job so that a man could fightÃ¢â¬ (18). The symbol of the American womanÃ¢â¬â¢s liberation was Rosie the Riveter and Hollywood applauded the working woman throughout the films of the early 40s. The only problem is that once the men came home and got their jobs back, many women were not expressing the jubilation of going back home that was expected. EstherÃ¢â¬â¢s alienation in The Bell Jar and HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s somewhat paternalistic attitude toward women reflect the confusion and tumult
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Measuring Business Performance - Coursework Example Kinney (2009) defines effectiveness is the state of doing the right things within and the limits that have been put, on the other hand efficiency is the state of doing things the right way. Effectiveness aims at outcome regardless of how resources are used while in efficiency focus on the process considering resource allocation. A good example is a company that deals with customer care services, if a worker achieves their daily target then they are effective. However, reaching targets does not mean all the calls successfully connected the customer. On the other hand, a worker may not reach the daily set targets but all his or her calls connect to customers, this is efficiency. 1. Efficiency and effectiveness enables a company saves resources and ensures maximum utilization of the same. When employees work efficiently, they utilize most of the resource with minimal or no wastage respectively. In doing so, the purposes for which the resources were intended for will are met. If efficiency is not there, some resources will be wasted meaning that new ones will have to be purchased thus affecting maximization of the resources. 2. Effectiveness and efficiency leads to expansion of a business. Through effectiveness company can meet targets and produce large volumes of quality goods per a given period of time. This means that the company will sell more goods per unit period. Increase in sales leads to purchase of new equipment that will demand space. The company will therefore expand so as to provide room for the equipment. 3. Efficiency and effectiveness increases profit margin of a company. When a company is efficient, it means that they are maximizing the use of the available resources. If effectiveness is applied, then the company will produce more commodities with minimum materials hence bringing up the profit margin of the company. Lyons (2013) note that in case of inflation, it is very hard to determine the performance of
Friday, August 23, 2019
Role that race and ethnicity played in the evolution of the American working class from the Spanish-American War to the eve of the Second World War - Essay Example In Spanish-American war, Cuba and Philippines were involved because these countries were the colonies of the Spain. American government helped fight the wars of these two countries against their colonizer which led to their victories. Having won the wars against Spain, America gained control over these countries and expanded its interest from Latin America to the Pacific. American economic interest also grew due to newfound alliance with the countries involved. It also opened doors for the Americans to trade with the other nations adjacent to these countries which mean free market and free taxes for the American capitalists and wider international markets. American economy soared high because of these reasons and American capitalist started looking for cheap workers for their growing businesses. Import and export businesses of basic commodities such as spices, wheat corn, cotton and other basic needs began to grow. After the war, middle class or working class started to come in Ameri ca due to expanding businesses and industries. Migration of Filipinos and Latin Americans started to grow due to open ports between America and countries of alliance. It has not stopped since then, and became the main composition of American working class today. Before the war, majority of the working class in America were African-American but after the war immigrant workers started to pour in from different parts of the globe. They saw America as a good opportunity to seek greener pastures and improve their lives that cannot be attained in their native country. Spanish-American war and the Second World War had a great impact on the American economy. Wider international market, rise in import export of basic commodities, more job opportunities and a promise of a better life were the reasons why immigrant workers started to flock in America. Aside from this American government had gained so much advantage in terms of political and economic aspects. Today American working
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Pacs Essay Groups and Teams at Kluster 1. What are the challenges of working together as a team? How have members of the Illuminator project overcome these challenges? What are the benefits of a team-based approach? Teamwork is a huge factor of the success for many companies around the world. The performance of teamwork in the workplace will bring the sense of trust, loyalty and security among every worker. The morale and productivity will be higher as a result of that. However, working on a team has its own challenges. Working with people that have different personalities, ideas, cultures, backgrounds, ages, needs and values is one of the most challenges that teamwork faces during its performance. Conflict, mistrust, poor performance can be created as result of these differences. Finding a way to overcome these obstacles is the foundation of a strong and successful teamwork. Illuminator project has overcome these challenges by respecting and using every skill and idea that each team member delivers. That makes every team member feel important and productive. Also communication among each member is very critical for the success of the Illuminator project. Today, teamwork has been found to be as a better way on using every employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s talent and skill toward a more effective and efficient organization. Ã¢â¬ Management has found that teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events than are traditional departments. Teams have the capability to quickly assemble, deploy, refocus, and disband. Ã¢â¬ Robbins and Judge, pg 323. 2. What type of individual would fit in well on the Illuminator team? What characteristics are important? According to the engineer of the Illuminator project, each team member should have self-disciplined and self-leadership. Individuals that are careful, reliable, organized, hardworking, persistent, and honest are those that are more likely to give a higher performance than those that lack any of these characteristics. Conscientious personality which describes someone that is responsible, persistent and organized would fit in well on the Illuminator team. Also, someone who is emotionally stable meaning a confidence, calmness and secure personality would fit in well on this team. . How has technology changed the way we do business? Identify how Kluster has embraced technology in its operations. Advanced technology such as computers and computer networks have changed and helped businesses on being more efficient and effective. Downsizing, outsourcing and empowerment are some of the substantial gains of the organizations due to the technology. New ways of communicating among members, stor ing information and researching for ideas and ways to achieve and succeed are result of the advanced technology. Kluster has taken advantage of the technology by using the telecommuting as a way of communication among team members. Since members of Kluster project live in different areas and some of them travel to different cities, itÃ¢â¬â¢s very important to communicate with each other at all the time. Therefore telecommuting through Web based program has made it possible. Ã¢â¬Å"Telecommuting refers to employees who do their work at home on a computer that is linked to their office. Ã¢â¬ Robbins and Judge, pg 223. 4. Describe the different parts of the Illuminator team. Why is it necessary to have each of these parts represented? The illuminator team is created by combining different ideas and skills of different individuals. Each team member has to be self- disciplined and committed to their job. As every organization, Illuminator team has the founder, the project designer, the engineer of the team and the project manager. The importance of this system is to keep the work in place and run effectively and naturally. Each member has different responsibilities that need to be established and require different skills. Illuminator project runs under job enlargement design which increases the degree of each member to control, plan and evaluate the work done. Ã¢â¬Å" An enriched job organizes tasks so as to allow the worker to do a complete activity, increases the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom and independence, increases responsibility, and provides feedback so individuals will be assess and correct their own performanceÃ¢â¬ . Robbins and Judge, pg 220. 5. Ben Kaufman, founder of Illuminator, says it is important to recognize that sometimes people need a break from the team. Explain what he means by this. Sometimes, personal life issues can cause stress, pressure, disorientation and weak performance. Therefore, itÃ¢â¬â¢s very important that every team member to have the right and be able to work sometimes on their own away from the team as long as they work on their job responsibilities. Depending on the personality, some individuals can perform better while under stress when they work alone. Being able to accept that break from the rest of the team, the organization is helping their member to establish his/her responsibilities required for the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s success. . What two or three suggestions would you provide to address ways that virtual teams could celebrate successes? How would you implement them? I would give two suggestions that could help virtual team succeed. The first one is to set a time of the day every week for all the team members to participate in a meeting via internet. In this way, everyone will be able to get the same feedbacks, ask questions and receiv e answers at the same time and share their ideas with the rest of the team. So every week the meeting will provide each member with the result of their work, how much has been achieved and where they need improvement. The second suggestion would be for the virtual team to have a leader where the team members can address all their questions and concern. The team leader should be reached at anytime of the day and be able to address these concerns in the best way possible. 7. As a manager, what two or three suggestions would you implement to ensure that individual members were recognized for their contribution? Obviously, financial incentives will help motivate every employee to perform better. A pay raise would be one of the suggestions that would ensure that the good work of a member has been recognized. Also, bonuses such as a paid day off or a gift card would be another suggestion. Employee of the month nomination can be a third suggestion. This way the competition to get any of these recognitions among employees will provide a better performance and more productive workers. Therefore, I as a manager will be able to lead a successful organization.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Concept of Demolition Man Essay * The Hollywood film represents the danger of globalization and cultural and environmental homogeneity, standardization and sanitation. * Friedman argues that because globalization is creating a single marketplace, it is homogenizing consumption and culture and can run the risk of wiping out ecological and cultural diversity throughout the world. In the Cold War system, cultures didnÃ¢â¬â¢t interact as frequently or directly as they do today, where they are often offered up for global competition and comparison against one another. Diversity in Globalization * Friedman argues that because globalization is often associated with Americanization, countries need to develop strong cultural and environmental filters so they can interact with but not be overwhelmed and swallowed by the herd. He suggests the most important filter is the ability to Ã¢â¬Å"glocalize,Ã¢â¬ meaning a cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to absorb natural influences into their culture yet reject those that are alienÃ¢â¬âto assimilate aspects of globalization into your culture in a way that adds diversity without overwhelming. * Globalization will be sustainable as long as we manage these filters in a way that protects our culture while simultaneously getting the best out of othersÃ¢â¬â¢ cultures. Methods for Greening Globalization * Mobilize the environmental entrepreneurs term coined by Keith Algers for an organization meant to stop the logging activities in the rainforest in Brazil while formulating a plan to avoid unemployment among these loggers. Looking at the bigger picture, it implies finding solution to the growing problems of compromise in the industrialized society that environmental protection and economic development can coexist together. * Environmentally Sound Production Methods Ã¢â¬â Corporations and shareholders should be pressured by the government to adapt new environmental policies. The government hitting companies over the head with both new regulations and new tax incentives to be green, and with SFC telling companies they have to start accurately portraying their environmental liabilities to shareholdersÃ¢â¬âsuch as where they are being sued for dumping and what the cleaning up costÃ¢â¬âthere has been a paradigm shift. * Learning how to use globalization itself. Where globalization is an asset is in the fact that it is creating Ã¢â¬Å"Super-empowered environmentalistÃ¢â¬ , who are acting on their own, can now fight back rather effectively against both the Electronic Herd and governments. Thanks to the Internet, environmentalists in one country are quickly relaying how a multinational behaves in their country to environmentalists in other countries. Preventing cultural homogeneity * GlocalizationHhlksal;kl;ksdsl;adkls;adkals;dÃ¢â¬âthe ability of a culture, when it encounters another strong cultures, to absorb influences that naturally fit into and can enrich that culture, to resist those things that are alien and to compartmentalize those things that, while different, can nevertheless be enjoyed and celebrated as different. * Unhelathy GlocalizationÃ¢â¬âwhen you absorb something that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t part of your culture, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t connect with anything latent in your culture, but you have so lost touch with your culture, you think it does. * Glocalism alone is not sufficient to protect indigenous cultures from globalization. Some hard filters are also needed. To begin with you need zoning laws, protected area laws and educational programs to preserve unique regions and a cultural heritage from insidious homogenous development.
Impact of Technology on Society Impact of Technology on Society Abstract The communication industry and the invention of communication devices marked a new phase in the interaction and social patterns of people. Taking into account the social needs of people, communication is an essential element that was made possible by telephones. Therefore, the technology of using telephones bridged the gap between the social needs and the geographical location (VanFossen, Berson, 2008). This was a major problem when the world had no communication devices. This research paper will look into the telephone technology in detail and then outline a number of impacts related to this technology. Attention in this research paper will be paid to how the introduction of the telephone technology changed the world. Impact of Technology on Society Introduction The technology chosen for this discussion is telephone. The telephone technology works by transmitting sounds and signals in distant places. This implies that people in far regions can communicate with ease without having to travel. This technology was conceived by Graham Bell in the 18th century and has changed the way people interact to this day. During the development of the telephone, there was a high level of skepticism that surrounded many people about the effectiveness of these gadgets (Ling, 2004). These concerns were addressed by the successful launch and operations of the first telephone. Societal Outlook after Introduction of Telephone Technology The introduction of telephones in the human history changed communication and the way people interacted. From a social perspective, the situation improved because people would talk and make decisions while in distant places. There was a great deal of convenience that came about as a result of this technology. For example, the cost of travelling for the purpose of relaying information was reduced with interested parties talking while in different locations. Interaction was taken a notch higher after the introduction of this technology with people talking about various things over the telephone. There was also a new trend of exchanging information and ideas never seen before in human civilization. The question of building relationships and networks by talking to people on the telephone changed as a result of telephones. Economically, there was increased trade between various regions. It should be noted that the telephone was good for business because traders would communicate with traders situated in other locations. From a business perspective, communication is an essential element in relation to the movement of goods and services. This means that communication means a lot in relation to the exchange of commodities. When the telephone was introduced, a new wave of business efficiency was experienced as a result of reduction in communication barriers that were prevalent at the time. Employment opportunities increased as a result of effective communication between various people doing business. In other words, capital inflows increased as a result of foreign investments. Communication was instrumental in terms of convincing investors from other parts of the world to come and invest in a given region (Lin Atkin, 2002). Globalization can also be attributed to the use of the telephone in the early year s. As a result of effective communication, the world was in a better position in terms of engaging with international partners. An increase in economic growth and development as a result of a high penetration of knowledge was experienced. A close review of the above mentioned changes shows that the telephone technology is a major invention that shaped the world in a major way. The open interaction system created by introduction of the telephone was a step in the right direction that improved the standards of living for most people. At the same time, the prices of commodities were standardized in relation to a connected world. From a political perspective, the telephone was an invaluable tool in terms of administration and coordinating various projects. Thanks to the communication process between various people, administration issues were effectively sorted out. Playing an oversight role in anything without proper communication is a sham affair that is not viable. Thus, the telephone invention was a major step towards the management of regions and resources. In addition, those playing the management role with regards to the political systems of a given region were expected to utilize effective communication for the purpose of making their intentions known (Mitcham, 2005). Welfare, Health and State of Environment The welfare aspect of society was enhanced as a result of the introduction of telephone technology. There were many issues that were addressed with the advent of this technology. There was a transition felt by many people in relation to highlighting various events happening in the society. A good example that can be used to show the welfare impact of this technology was the discussion of events over the telephone by many people. The culture of discussing issues in groups changed drastically and transformed to detailed analysis of information through telephone communication. The health of the society changed for the better with the emergence of telephone technology. For example, the communication and dissemination of information increased in a way that helped people to understand various issues happening in the society. From a mass communication point of view, attaining a healthy society entails taking into account how information and ideas are exchanged (Lin Atkin, 2002). This is why regions with poor communication mechanisms are considered as less healthy. The expectation is that a society with effective communication systems is able to address issues with consideration and consultation. This is opposed to a society where the communication infrastructure is not well developed. With regards to the state of the environment, telephone technology signaled a new phase in terms of environmental conservation issues. It is imperative to note that communication has a direct correlation with the state of the environment. For example, a society with diverse communication channels provides ample opportunities for deliberation on issues associated with the environment. In this case, those concerned about the environmental systems, used the communication aspect for the purpose of enlightening the public about the problems that needed to be addressed. Functioning of Society after Implementation of Technology The telephone enabled governments and other administration systems in terms of managing people from diverse backgrounds and cultures. From a leadership perspective, there is need for different people to have a common agenda that unites them as a country. This fete can only be attained through telephone communication. A look at regions with many cultures shows an improvement in the governance system as a result of effective movement of information from one point to another. By communicating in a common language such as English, which is widely spoken by people around the world, leaders were able to communicate their agenda to the public. According to analysts, communication played an influential role in terms of shaping governance systems and the consolidation of power (Mercer, 2006). Therefore, the influence of telephones on the political realm of people was widespread and changed the course of history in relation to leadership. Education and the public system of teaching was enhanced as a result of this technology. By the time Bell discovered the telephone, education was a problem and was conducted in a way that was not viable for both students and teachers. The problem was that communication was not taking place in the right way. There are many instances where students did not receive the best learning curriculum due to breakdown in communication. It can be said that communication influenced the learning culture in a better way by introducing ideas from other regions. This was made possible as a result of communication between teachers in various parts of the world. As educational providers embarked on developing the best curriculum for their students, communication through the telephone was emphasized. This implies that the telephone technology improved learning by promoting curriculum development. Negative and Positive Impacts of Telephones on Welfare and Health Negative Impacts The first demerit of the telephone technology in terms of health and welfare of the society was reduction in the physical contact among the people engaged in communication. There were worries that the new technology would affect the social bonds that people had considering that communicating through the telephone is devoid of meeting the person physically. This presented a social threat to the coexistence of people and was slated to create isolation due to talking over the telephone for a long time (Mitcham, 2005). The other negative aspect of the telephone technology on welfare was the cost associated with making a call. The charges of making telephone calls at the time were high and discouraged other people from using the communication device. This explains why the technology was a preserve of the affluent. On the other hand, the ordinary people did not find it convenient to use the communication at a cost. This is an indication that despite the invention of this technology, the needs of people were not met. Mental health complications were another impact of using the telephone technology. According to psychologists, the signals that coordinate communication between one person and the other can damage the brain cells. The damage caused by the waves to the brain cells is considered to have far reaching implications on the long term mental condition of a person. These signals react have the capability of reacting with brain cells hence, reducing functionality. The risk was high among those people who were using the technology repeatedly. As can be seen in the above description, the mode of communicating through the telephone was harmful to human health. Positive Impacts The main positive aspect of introducing the telephone technology was convergence of the world. Due to an increase in the number of people communicating, the entire world was interconnected and thereby fostered a new era of transport and trade agreements. As long as the whole world was connected through the telephone technology, there was every reason to believe that telephones helped in making the world a single compendium. In addition, the new connection of the globe helped nations and individuals to seek opportunities beyond their shore such as in the area of business and education. Nothing beats efficiency in terms of production and even relationships (VanFossen, Berson, 2008). The telephone was an important addition that changed the landscape in a better way. For example, those doing business were able to expand their scope by travelling to new areas. In addition, there was increased cohesion around the world like never before. Lack of a definite communication structure interfer es with the system of interaction by creating tension. The second positive aspect about telephone technology is the idea of promoting freedom and democracy through deliberations. According to communication experts, the use of telephones was a game changer in terms of expression and the pursuit of universal rights on freedom of speech. The above mentioned elements of human rights could not have been achieved without the help of the telephone. It is logical to point that this technology opens up opportunities for users on many fronts such as economic, political and social. Negative and Positive Impacts of Telephones on the Environment Negative Impacts The major problem brought about by the telephone technology was emission of waves that maybe harmful to the environment. The ecosystem is an important medium that humans need to survive and thus exposing the latter to these emissions pose a huge risk to human, animal and plant life. The erection of telephone poles and machinery that supported the operation of telephones was conducted in a way that was not environmentally viable. The question of this new technology being a burden rather than a solution was raised with regards to the negative impacts on the environment. The second problem with the use telephones was over dependency. After this technology was introduced, the rate of dependency increased as a result of long distance relationships which had been maintained. There was also an unprecedented increase psychological issues related to the dependency mentioned in the previous statement (Lin Atkin, 2002). The bottom line is that this technology changed the aspect of dependency that was prevalent before, the technology was conceived. The problem with this trend was that a small breakdown in the communication chain would affect relationships and plans in a major way. Positive Impacts The good side of using telephones with regards to the environment was effective coordination and interaction that created value. This was not the case during the days when telephones had not been invented. Value is normally created through the process of interaction. This also depends on the objectives of both parties in the interaction. The negative impacts of telephones on the environment are many as compared to the positive attributes. This has been evidenced by the above analysis of negative and positive impacts of the telephone technology. Impact of Telephone Technology and Engineering Practices The example of the telephone technology outlined in this discussion shows the need for innovation and flexibility in the field. Innovation is a crucial requirement in the field of engineering since, the latter raises the prospects of addressing various challenges facing the society. Just like the genius concepts applied by Graham Bell during his discovery, the same approach should be used by engineers focused on improving their skills. A culture of innovation should be inculcated in the engineering field to help position developers in terms of developing viable solutions that address societal challenges. Critical Thinking Skills and Evaluating Impact of Technology The emergence of the telephone concept is a reflection of high level innovation and satisfaction of human needs (Ling, 2004). Since, the early years of development, a number of developments have been made and as the modern situation shows, communication is changing at a fast rate. The society is at the center of this change and provides an explanation of how best a given technology works for the needs of people. Conclusion The world is better and more informed because of the telephone technology. The scope of influence created by this technology is immense and has changed the way people interact and think. With the changing times, the system of communication has been taking a new turn with new trend coming up. The impacts of this technology on the environment, health and welfare of the society shows the strides made since, the early years. References Lin, C. A., Atkin, D. J. (2002). Communication technology and society: Audience adoption and uses. Creskill, N.J: Hampton Press. Ling, R. S. (2004). The mobile connection: The cell phones impact on society. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann. Mercer, D. (2006). The telephone: The life story of a technology. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press. Mitcham, C. (2005). Encyclopedia of science, technology, and ethics. Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA. VanFossen, P. J., Berson, M. J. (2008). The electronic republic: The impact of technology on education for citizenship. West Lafayette, Ind: Purdue University Press.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Ephedra: Asking For Trouble? A member of the phylum Gnetophyta, the Ephedra genus is a perennial, dioecious shrub that reaches 1 1/2 to 4 feet tall (7). There are multiple species of this genus that inhabit the desert regions in certain parts of the world. The three species E. sinica, E. intermedia, and E. equisetina are found in Asia, particularly China and Mongolia. Ephedra distacha is from Europe. India and Pakistan are home to E. gerardiana. North American species consist of E. nevadensis (Mormon tea), E. viridis (desert tea), E. americana, and E. trifurca (7). It takes an average of four years for the shrub to achieve maturation (10) and is harvested in the fall (11). Ephedra has been used medicinally for hundreds, even thousands of years in the regions where it grows. For more than 5000 years, Ephedra's stems have been dried to cure multiple ailments in China. The first records of its use can be found in a Chinese compilation of herbs called Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (11), which dates back to the first century A.D. (5) E. sinica, called Tsaopen-Ma Huang (2), is the most common species used. Ma Huang refers to the stem and branch, whereas Ma Huanggen refers to the root and rhizome. Ma Huang was used primarily in the treatment of the common cold, asthma, hay fever, bronchitis, edema, arthritis, fever, hypotension, and urticaria (hives). Ma Huanggen's effect is believed to oppose that of the stem and branches. Its use was limited to the treatment of profuse night sweating" (7). Ma Huang was believed to relieve other ailments such as headaches, urinary tract infections, and venereal diseases (10). The Chinese prepared Ephedra different ways, such as extracts and compresses. However, the most common preparation of Ma Huang was as a tea. The stems were dried in the sun and either broken into pieces or crushed into a powder. It was then boiled in a mixture of honey and water. Sometimes it was boiled until only the residue remained, and then consumed (8). Tea appears to be the most common preparation of Ephedra as a medicine in India and North America as well. In India and Pakistan, the stems of E. geradinia were used to treat asthma (8). An ancient collection of Hindu sacred writings called the Rigved gives mention of a drink called soma. Soma was a juice made from Ephedra and was believed to promote longevity (6).
Monday, August 19, 2019
Adeline Yen Mah's "Falling Leaves" Works Cited Missing Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã For years, the world has been oblivious to the painful, degrading traditions toward women that take place behind the Ã¢â¬Å"Bamboo CurtainÃ¢â¬ of China. Falling Leaves , by Adeline Yen Mah, unveils the darker side of Chinese culture through her eyes as an unwanted Chinese daughter. Shocking mistreatment, of not only the author, but also the females in her extended family keep suspense alive throughout the book. My heart sobs at each account of AdelineÃ¢â¬â¢s tortured life, but through it all, there was a flicker of her spirit that could not be put out. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In China, girls are seen as a possession or a Ã¢â¬Å"cheap commodityÃ¢â¬ (Yen Mah 100). Sons, especially the eldest, are given far more attention and praise. Families that are well off keep their daughters and marry them off to prominent familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ sons through a marriage broker (Ã¢â¬Å"mei-poÃ¢â¬ ). Rich daughters often had their feet bound, a process by which the Ã¢â¬Å"four lateral toes of the foot are forced with a bandage under the sole so that only the big toe protruded. (It was) tightened daily for a number of years (so as to) permanently arrest the footÃ¢â¬â¢s growth in order to achieve tiny feet so prized by Chinese menÃ¢â¬ (Yen Mah 11). Their inability to walk with ease is a symbol of submissiveness, weakness, and wealth. This tradition is becoming more rare, but still many older women bear its pain today. AdelineÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother went against these traditions by not torturing her own daughter i...
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"To accept anything as true means to incur the risk of error. If I limit myself to knowledge that I consider true beyond doubt, I minimize the risk of error, but at the same time I maximize the risk of missing out on what may be the subtlest, most important, and most rewarding things in lifeÃ¢â¬ . That was on page three of E.F. SchumacherÃ¢â¬â¢s A Guide for the Perplexed. It was included on the third page on the text because it is one of the most important reoccurring themes throughout the book. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Schumacher means that if we only consider things of proven fact then we would be missing out on the rest of the world. If we only concentrate on what is proven then we will miss out on what is unproven thus far but could eventually be proven. Schumacher stresses his point by using the philosopher Renee Descartes. Schumacher says, Ã¢â¬Å"Descartes limits his interest to knowledge and ideas that are precise and certain beyond any possibility of doubt, because his primary interest is that we should become Ã¢â¬Ëmasters and possessors of nature.Ã¢â¬â¢ Nothing can be precise unless it can be quantified in one way or anotherÃ¢â¬ (9). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Descartes means that humans are the Supreme Being reining the earth and we should know everything about it. We should only accept the facts that are precise and clear cut. Everything has a reason, and it is our job as humans to know what that reason is. Schumacher takes this discussion further by analyzing the ideas of the philosopher Immanual Kant. In talking about Kant, Schumacher said, Ã¢â¬Å"Neither mathematics nor physics can entertain the qualitative notion of Ã¢â¬ËhigherÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëlower.Ã¢â¬â¢ So the vertical dimension disappeared from the philosophical maps, which henceforth concentrated on somewhat farfetched problems, such as Ã¢â¬ËDo other people exist?Ã¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËHow can I know anything at all?Ã¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËDo other people have experiences analogous to mine?Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (11). Vertical dimension is clarified on page 12 where Schumacher states, Ã¢â¬Å"The loss of the vertical dimension meant that it was no longer possible to give an answer, other than a utilitarian oneÃ¢â¬ . Schumacher also discusses PlorinusÃ¢â¬â¢s Adaequatio philosophy. Schumacher said, Ã¢â¬Å"This is the Great Truth of Ã¢â¬Å"adaequatioÃ¢â¬ (adequateness), which defines knowledge as adaequatio rei et intellectus Ã¢â¬â the understanding of the knower must be adequate to the thing to be knownÃ¢â¬ (39). By knowing just the things that are adequate for our understanding we are leaving so much behind.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
There are many different theories and conclusions about the death of the Iceman. Konrad Spindler, who led the team studying the body, concluded that Iceman was a shepherd living in a farming community close to the Val Venosta. Iceman was well equipped for long absences and his general health was good although he did have some health problems. Most scholarsÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions however, are conflicted about how and why he died. According to Spindler, Iceman was a shepherd and may have lived in a farming village near the Val Venosta. Most historians agree that Iceman came from the Val Venosta are because of the similarity in flint found on Iceman and at the Val Venosta site. Perhaps the most convincing reason that Iceman came from the Val Venosta was that it was only 20km, a few hours walk, away. Konrad SpindlerÃ¢â¬â¢s research in 1993 revealed harvested grains in his clothing and the threshing remains in his ember carrier. These, coupled with evidence that the Iceman did not make his own clothes (due to clumsy attempts at repair), suggest contact with a farming community. This tells us that the Iceman could have lived in a village or town close to the Val Venosta, and, that he died soon after the harvest. Judging by the equipment he was carrying, the Iceman had probably had experience travelling away from his village as his tools and weapons enabled him to hunt and defend himself. The Iceman carried with him a yew bow, a quiver made from a fur bag with a hazel wood rod tied to the side for support. 4 arrows (12 of which were incomplete), a flint knife with an ash handle and scabbard, an axe with a copper blade attached with leather thronging. Two mushrooms on leather strips for Ã¢â¬Å"medicinalÃ¢â¬ purposes. A retoucher for IcemanÃ¢â¬â¢s dagger, arrowheads & axe, a net of grass strings, a backpack with hazel wood frame. Two cylindrical birch-bark containers, and, a belt pouch & contents such a flint scraper, a possible drilling tool, a blade for carving, an awl for punching holes in leather and tree fungi, possibly for tinder. All these weapons and pieces of equipment would have helped the Iceman to defend himself from other humans or wild animals. He would have also been able to hunt for sufficient food to sustain himself. Based in the evidence, historians have assumed that Iceman may have been a shepherd and the weapons used to defend his flock. Based on his equipment, an equally valid theory is that the Iceman was a nomadic hunter. We can never be sure of his exact occupation. IcemanÃ¢â¬â¢s general health was relatively good, however, he did have some health problems. His health problems included; a low level of lead pollution, a high cholesterol reading (with some blood clotting on the heart), degeneration of bone joints, and, worn teeth. Despite these health issues, Iceman died between the ages of 35-40, quite old for that period of time. The IcemanÃ¢â¬â¢s body also bore several injuries because, on his left, were fractured ribs that had healed over time and, on the right, he had four broken ribs. The ribs are estimated to have broken 2-3 weeks before his death because his right arm showed signs of not having been used to lessen the pain. The tattoos on IcemanÃ¢â¬â¢s body were once thought to have had some ritualistic meaning, but, after bone scans were done the degeneration of his bone joints became known, the historians concluded that the tattoos were a treatment for the pain he was feeling. Many scholars have different opinions over how and why the Iceman died. Konrad SpindlerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is that, returning to his village after the summer grazing in the Alps, he was then involved in some violent incident and was forced to flee. The evidence Spindler presented to back his theory was the quality of IcemanÃ¢â¬â¢s equipment. Some of it was damaged or lost, indicating prolonged use with no chance to repair or replace items. SpindlerÃ¢â¬â¢s other evidence was the broken ribs which supported his idea of a violent incident. In 2001 a CAT-scan revealed an arrowhead embedded in the IcemanÃ¢â¬â¢s shoulder. This told historians that Iceman had definitely been involved in a violent incident and, in 2002, the arrowhead was examined and it was discovered that the arrow had come from the Southern Alpine region. Professor A. Pedrotti concluded that the arrow had probably been fired by IcemanÃ¢â¬â¢s own people. In 2003, DNA analysis of IcemanÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes and weapons indicated blood from several people. The blood of two people was found on one arrowhead alone. Dr. T. Loy argued that Iceman had fired his arrow into two enemies, retrieving the precious weapon each time. However, he too had been wounded in the back, and had bled to death in the place he was found 5000 years later. There have been many different theories regarding the life and death of Iceman. If any new evidence comes to light the doubtless there will be many more theories surrounding him. But, possibly the most agreed on theory is that of Konrad Spindler who claims that Iceman was a shepherd ;living in a farming community close to the Val Venosta. He was well equipped for long absences and his general health was good but he did have some health problems. The Iceman then died after a violent dispute with some of his own people. And, while that seem very likely, there will still be many conflicted opinions about how and why the Iceman died.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Mercury is an element that comes naturally in nature, or manufactured by humans.Ã It comes in different forms.Ã According to the New Jersey Department of Health, mercury may be found as metallic mercury, a kind of silver-gray liquid that is harmful when exposed into the air and breathed in; methylmercury, which may be ingested by eating fish; inorganic mercury which can be found in over-the-counter drugs, batteries, and other pharmaceuticals, and is harmful when breathed in or swallowed; and phenylmercury in household products like paints, cosmeticsÃ and toiletries and is harmful when breathed in, swallowed or passed through the skin (Kapsch, et. al, 1999). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This paper delves into the mercury and its harmful effects on the fish population and ultimately, adverse effects onÃ human health. Mercury in the Environment Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As noted above, mercury is found naturally in the environment.Ã Ã Paul Kapsch, Matt Landi and Sarah Scwartz writes that natural incidents and accidents like forest fires and volcanic eruptions spew mercury into the air (1999). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Natural Resource Defense Council adds thatÃ power plants and certain chemicals manufacturers, as well as other industrial facilities release mercury into the air through their daily operations.Ã The released mercury eventually ends up in the waterways and oceans.Ã Fish in these ecosystems ingest the mercury, which people, in turn ingest by eating the fish. (NRDC, 2006). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mercury is also present in many things that one has at home like fluorescent and neon lamps, mercury switches in chest freezes, thermostat probes, thermometers, barometers and other gauges, laboratory solutions and even dental amalgam (Kapsch, et. al, 1999). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Paul Kapsch and his partners outlined the environmental impact of mercury.Ã Citing ExtoxNet (1999), Kapsch, et. al, stated that while mercury enters the environment, concentrations in the air and atmosphere is generally very low.Ã Mercury, however, is deposited into forest ecosystems where it accumulates in highly toxic forms.Ã Eventually it leads up to aquatic ecosystems, which in some cases contribute to human health problems. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Natural Resource Defense Council added that when mercury enters into the various water systems, bacteria take it in and convert it into a type of methyl mercury, which is easily absorbed by humans (1999).Ã The NRDC also explained that the mercury then Ã¢â¬Å"works it way up the food chainÃ¢â¬ as larger fish eat smaller contaminated fish.Ã Mercury, however, does not break down.Ã Instead it accumulates in fish (1999). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã To illustrate the point, the NRDC stated that predatory fishes like sharks and mackerel have been found to have 10,000 times higher mercury concentration (1999). How Mercury Enters the Body Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mercury can enter the body by breathing it in, swallowing or eating contaminated food, drinking contaminated water , or through the skin (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Consumption of contaminated fish, however, is one of the most dangerous way of getting mercury in the body since it involves methylmercury, which is easily absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract into a personÃ¢â¬â¢s bloodstream (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 2003, Dr. Jane Hightower, doctor of internal medicine at the California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco, found that 89% of participating patients had high mercury levels.Ã Most of these participants had as much as four times the safe level of mercury in their blood stream.Ã Participants in Dr. HightowerÃ¢â¬â¢s study were chosen precisely because of their fish-heavy diets. (NRDC, 2006). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Once in the bloodstream, the mercury goes into various parts of the body.Ã Methylmercury in pregnant women gets passed on into the childÃ¢â¬â¢s blood stream and then into the childÃ¢â¬â¢s brain.Ã A nursing mother may pass the methylmercury through breast milk. (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2008). Health Risks Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The NRDC says that mercury exposure can be particularly hazardous for pregnant women and small children.Ã Ã The NRDC adds that mercury exposure can lead to cerebral palsy, mental retardation, blindness and deafness in infants and fetuses.Ã Even with a minimal exposure, the child may be delayed in learning how to walk and talk, have low attention span and may later on develop learning disabilitiesÃ (NRDC, 2006). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã And the numbers are alarming.Ã In July 2005, researchers at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 1 in 17 women of childbearing age have more than 5.8 micrograms of mercury per liter of blood.Ã The CDC stated that this level may pose a risk to the developing child (NRDC, 2006). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mercury-contaminated fish is not just dangerous for children and pregnant women but it is also dangerous for adults (Mercola.Com, 2003).Ã Mercola.Com related that mercury destroys the nerve tissues, the visual cortex and the cerebellum.Ã It affects complex movements and balance.Ã It also leads to problems in attention span and language.Ã It also decreases concentration, deftness and verbal memory in adults.Ã (Mercola.Com, 2003). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã For some adults, mercury poisoning can lead to fertility problems and blood pressure regulation problems.Ã It also causes memory loss, vision loss, numbness in the fingers and toes, and tremors.Ã It is suspected that mercury exposure also leads to heart disease (NRDC, 2006). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry warned that the nervous system is prone to mercury contamination.Ã The Agency said that in this type of mercury poisoning, some people who consumed seed grains and fish contaminated with large amounts of methyl mercury developed severe brain and kidneys damage.Ã Ã The Agency explains that mercury accumulates in the kidneys, so it damages it more.Ã (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2008). Ã * * * Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The above discussion shows that consumption of mercury contaminated fish is very dangerous for consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s health, and is a source of different diseases especially inÃ (but not limited to) children and pregnant women. Studies have concluded that mercury poisoning have caused several conditions and diseases from simple memory loss, loss of concentration, fertility problems to something as grave and irreparable as mental retardation and kidney ailments.Ã And studies on the relationship between mercury and other, more life-threatening diseases like heart ailments are currently underway.Ã The growing body of evidence all points to some disease that can be traced to mercury poisoning. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Consumers have to actively control their fish diets.Ã If they are fond of eating fish, they might find it useful to regularly check and look for advisories regarding mercury contamination in their area.Ã It is also recommended that they regularly check their own mercury levels and if they found their mercury levels higher they have to consult with their doctors immediately. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Since mercury poisoning is more dangerous to pregnant women and small children, it might be best to veer away from eating fish altogether, and take up healthier choices such as vegetables and dairy products.Ã Being more vigilant with regards to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s diet can reap long-term prevention that would help ensure optimum health. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Authorities need to take much stronger steps to protect a far greater portion of people.Ã Authorities must examine their antiquated safeguards designed to protect an average personÃ from an average amount of methyl mercury in fish and take more protective and realistic actions against exposure to methyl mercury through food. Authorities need to constantly update themselves, as Ã¢â¬Å"safe levelsÃ¢â¬ of mercury in the diet are constantly changing.Ã In fact, the trend is that the required safe levels are getting higher with each new research that goes out of the pipeline. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Public health authorities, as well as community leaders, or any health-related organization, must come together to inform, educate and empower the public about the dangers of fish consumption, mercury contamination, and adverse health effects.Ã Information is the best weapon against mercury contamination, without it, no amount of public policy will be sufficient or effective.Ã The public needs to be aware of what mercury does to the body, the diseases associated with it, where mercury could be found, how it gets into your body, what measures are to be done. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã More than anything, it is high time to look at more efficient ways of disposing all types of mercury.Ã Since mercury could be found in nature, it will be next to impossible to eradicate it.Ã What one could hope for is to reduce environmental damage from the mercury that we can control.Ã If people could somehow take care and reduce the amount of mercury that goes into the environment as waste, people would be protecting not only the oceans and the fish, but also themselves.Ã Taking care of the environment would ensure sustainability in the future and would drastically decrease mercuryÃ¢â¬âand in fact and principleÃ¢â¬âall types of contamination. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In effect, stopping or greatly reducing mercury contamination and all the ill effects associated with it takes the effort of everybody in the community, but it starts mainly with your self. Ã Ã Ã References Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (Content source); Sidney Draggan and Emily Monosson (Topic Editors). 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Public Health Statement for Mercury.Ã¢â¬ In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth November 13, 2007; Last revised January 24, 2008; Retrieved April 2, 2008]. Jeremy Laurence, (8 March, 2007) Fish Contaminated With Mercury Ã¢â¬ËPose Worldwide Threat to Health. The Independent.Ã Retrieved on 3 April 2008. Kapsch, Paul, Landi, Matt and Schwartz Sarah. (1999). Mercury. University of Vermont. Retrieved on 3 April 2008. Learn About Mercury and Its Effects, (2006) Natural Resource Defense Council. Retrieved on 23rd March 2008. Mercury-Contaminated Fish Poses Health Risks to Adults, (2003) Mercola.com. Retrieved on 25th March, 2008. Ã Ã
Life has many ups and downs. It is like a roller coaster ride in that it takes many turns. All the way through the life of a person, there will be good times and celebrations along with bad times and grief. The most significant thing to remember is to think positive and always stay strong mentally even at your lowest points. Frederick Douglass is a name of struggle. Being born into slavery, he faced many hardships throughout his life that people of today will never know, but overcome all of them because of his relentlessness to never give up, his passion to learn, be his own man, and more significantly staying strong mentally and keeping faith in God. Mental stiffness is when all things seem to be going wrong and there are no signs of hope, but you continue to strive for what you believe in, and Douglass did a good job of that. Douglass never gives up even when there appears to be no hope, and in the end is rewarded for all of his commitment. After the whole thing Douglass goes through, in the end he is not granted his freedom, but instead takes it on his own and his dream of being free is no longer a dream but in fact reality. Douglass resided in Baltimore intermittently from his arrival in the city in 1826 at the age of eight until he escaped from slavery twelve years later. Reflecting the uncertainties of black life in antebellum Baltimore, Douglass could state that Ã¢â¬Å"a city slave is almost a free man compared with a slave on the plantationÃ¢â¬ and lament that while in Baltimore Ã¢â¬Å"I often found myself regretting my own existence and wishing myself deadÃ¢â¬ (Narrative 50, 56). DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s conflicting impressions of his adolescence as a slave in Baltimore, impressions of comparative liberty and abject despair, reflected the larger paradox of African-American life in the city that claimed AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest black population at the time of the Civil War. Located on the border of slavery and freedom, Baltimore created space for African Americans to develop dynamic institutions that proved very important to their post-emancipation history. Yet these institutions developed under harsh restrictions on the freedom of non-slave African Americans that white Baltimoreans devised to replace the increasingly impractical bonds of slavery. Black agency amid the constraints and opportunities of an urban slave society gave Douglass with his first classroom in the limits of freedom for nineteenth-century African Americans. When DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s mother Harriet Bailey died he was hardly affected by the news for the reason that he rarely seen her. DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s father was a white man; slaveholders usually impregnated their femaleÃ¢â¬â¢s slaves to increase the number of slaves they owned. As a child Douglass didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work in the fields because children werenÃ¢â¬â¢t strong enough. Therefore, he had free time to do other things besides tasks. Sometimes he would go along wit the ColonelÃ¢â¬â¢s grandson, Daniel, as a servant when he went hunting. Daniel in time became close to Douglass which was an advantage. But, Douglass still suffered because slave children were only given a long linen shirt, therefore in the winter he would be really cold. When Douglass was eight years old he was selected to go to Baltimore to live with Hugh Auld. Douglass was not sad to leave the plantation because he had no family or any sense of home that children usually had. He believes that if he had not been removed that he would still be a slave today. Douglass was amazed how kind his new was; unlike other white women she did not punish him for looking her in the eye. But, after some time, her kindness turned to cruelty, and she completely changed as a person. When Douglass first moved in with the Aulds, Mrs. Auld began teaching him the alphabet and some small words. When her husband found out he ordered her to sop because Ã¢â¬Å"education ruins slaves, making them unmanageable and unhappy. Ã¢â¬ Douglass overhears this and comes up with the strategy of what white men use to enslave blacks. From that he now understands what he has to do to win his freedom. Douglass lived in the AuldÃ¢â¬â¢s household for seven years, he was able to learn how to read and write. Mrs. Auld became hardened and cruel and no longer tutored him. But, Douglass already learned the alphabet and was strong-minded to learn how to read. Auld rents Douglass for one year to Edward Covey, who was known for Ã¢â¬Å"breakingÃ¢â¬ slaves. For the first six months Covey worked and whipped everything out of Douglass to the point where he no longer cared about reading or freedom. This all changed when Douglass and Covey had a clash and after the fight Covey never touched Douglass yet again. Douglass was then rented to William Freeland, even though Freeland was milder and a fairer man, he was still going to escape. Frederick went on to become a famous orator, U. S. minister to Haiti, and a leader of his people. Douglass, like the other slaves is not born with this mental toughness, but acquires it mainly through his faith in God, hard work, and learning to read and write. DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ faith in God is crucial because Douglass can turn to God at any point in his life. When Douglass is at his lowest, his faith in God is always there to lift him up. Ã¢â¬Å"O God, save me! God, deliver me! Let me be free! Ã¢â¬ (72). Their are times where Douglass questions God because of brutal conditions with Mr. Covey, but Douglass still stays strong mentally and spiritually, and that is key to taking his freedom. Douglass has a strong mind of his own, and does not let anyone or anything change what he believes is right. Conditions for slaves are pretty much severe everywhere they go. Slaves work long hard hours, for pretty much nothing, and to go along with that are poorly nourished. Douglass is lucky enough to be sent to Baltimore to live with the AuldÃ¢â¬â¢s because conditions are a slightly easier there, but most importantly because that is where he learns to read and write. Luckily for Douglass, Mrs. Auld teaches him the alphabet and small words before her heart turns to stone. Ã¢â¬Å"Very soon after I went to live with Mr. and Mrs. Auld, she very kindly commenced to teach me the A, B, C. After I had learned this, she assisted me in learning to spell words of three or four letters. Ã¢â¬ (45). Although reading lessons with Mrs. Auld eventually stop, this does not stop Douglass in trying to acquire as much knowledge as possible. This makes Douglass even hungrier for knowledge because he knows that being literate is key to being free. The poor white children of the neighborhood eventually teach Douglass how to read in return for some food. Ã¢â¬Å"As many of these as I could, I converted into teachers. With their kindly aid, obtained at different times and in different places, I finally succeeded in learning to read. Ã¢â¬ (49). This is crucial for Douglass to gain his freedom, and help him believe in himself. Although brutal times are shortly ahead for Douglass at Mr. CoveyÃ¢â¬â¢s, the slave tamer, this knowledge and insight is definitely one of the major factors that helps him get through it. Before going to Mr. CoveyÃ¢â¬â¢s, DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ been through a lot of mental and physical pain, but he does not know the worst is yet to come. Because of his disobedience and excessive curiosity in Baltimore, DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ master sends him to Mr. CoveyÃ¢â¬â¢s, who is one of the cruelest slave tamerÃ¢â¬â¢s around. Douglass states that the first six months with Mr. Covey are unbearable. DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ first task is to guide the oxen, and when he fails he barely leaves with his life. Covey whips him repeatedly, and continues to do so for weeks. CoveyÃ¢â¬â¢s extreme work and brutal punishments drain Douglass mentally and physically; he feels his hope for freedom is slipping away. This is where DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ faith in God is crucial because he literally has no one else to turn to except God. It seems as if Douglass is about to let Mr. Covey win, and believe that all he is put on this earth to do is slave for others. But one day as Mr. Covey tries tying Douglass up for another brutal beating; Douglass defends himself and finds the courage within him to stand up to Mr. Covey by fighting back. Douglass injures Mr. Covey to the point where he is bleeding. Because of his courage to stand up for himself, Covey never lays a finger on Douglass again. This part of the autobiography is indeed a turning point because it restores DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ confidence that he always had inside of him, and makes him believe that he will one day be a free man. Ã¢â¬Å"This battle with Mr. Covey was the turning- point in my career as a slave. It rekindled the few expiring embers of freedom, and revived within me a sense of my own manhood. Ã¢â¬ (78). This is indeed the turning point in his life because he stands up for what he believes in and actually wins. After this point Douglass is extremely confident in himself, and due to the knowledge he gains and his mental strength he is able to get through possibly his hardest obstacle in his life. Ã¢â¬Å"I did not hesitate to let it be known of me, that the white man who expected to succeed in whipping, must also succeed in killing me. Ã¢â¬ (78). This is such a powerful line in that it shows DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ relentlessness to never give up, and it shows that he is once again strong, not necessarily physically, but more importantly mentally. This turning point helps Douglass stay on track, and eventually helps him escape to New York City. After New York Douglass goes to Massachusetts were he meets abolitionist Garrison, and is eventually employed as an abolitionist. All in all, Frederick Douglass achieves his goals due to hard work and his passion to learn. After all, the struggle throughout his life, DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ dream finally comes true, and it could not have happened to a more deserving man. One more DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ master was Mr. Gore who was a key example of the many white people who let their power go to their heads. Frederick Douglass lived a hard life as a slave as pretty much all slaves did. He is pushed to the limit mentally and physically, and although there are times Douglass almost breaks down, he never lets that happen to him. By learning how to read and write he realizes that knowledge is power, just like it is today. Ignorance is ugly, and he does not want that to happen to him. DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge helps open doors for him that he would never have opened if he was not educated. Frederick Douglass is an amazing man, and shows that if you are strong mentally you can accomplish anything you put your mind too. Douglass accounts in his thrilling and morbid firsthand account of slavery in the south. Douglass lets the reader look at slavery in a style that reflects the desperation of slave life. Points covered range from the exploitation of slave women by their white masters to the violent treatment, and in some cases murder of slaves, to the back-breaking labor and lack of personal time. The biography includes chilling accounts of his mother. She walked twelve miles every night to see him, in infancy, and when she died, Douglass was not even allowed to witness her burial. This was common practice in those times, but to the modern reader, this is quite appalling. DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ life was only made more complicated by the accusation that his master, Captain Anthony, was also his father. The treatment of these Ã¢â¬ËmixedÃ¢â¬â¢ children was often worse than that of regular slave children due to the fact that the mistress of the house felt animosity towards them. As a result, Frederick had to face the wrath of Captain AnthonyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. What made DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences truly unique was the fact that he learned how to read and write. Most slaves were killed if they were caught doing so but in DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ case, he was very lucky. When he was sent to Baltimore, Sophia Auld, his new mistress, taught him how to read a few simple words. From that point, he taught himself new words everyday through The Columbian Orator, a collection of speeches and essays dealing with liberty, democracy, and courage. Douglass saw this as his ticket to freedom. Douglass sheds some light on several areas such as the reason behind the slave songs and what it feels like to watch a family member be beaten and abused. His narrative does a very thorough job of conveying the slave experience to an audience that has no idea. The image conjured of slave owners and all of southern society in the 18th and 19th century is a negative one. This caricature holds shockingly true in DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ narrative. However, there is a lot more complexity to Southern society show in DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ well-crafted words. There are different kinds of slave owners in different parts of the south. People like Captain Anthony and Thomas Auld, who reside in the deep south, are cruel to the slaves they own, as they are property. Like the cotton gin, they are there to turn a profit. As long as they can work and do work, nothing else really matters. In Baltimore, a different type of slave owner is known. Sophia and Hugh Auld live next to neighbors that do not own slaves and are therefore, conscious of how they treat their slaves in public. Sophia had not even owned slaves before Douglass, so in the beginning, she was very kind and treated Douglass as you would treat any child. The abolitionist movement is a larger concern in Baltimore, because it is in the very streets. In the deeper south, though they are concerned about slaves escaping and abolitionists, the threat is not as axiomatic. Douglass also exposes the false piety of slave owners. Though many of them are bible thumping, none of them truly understands the lessons they are preached. Douglass analyzes the moral woes of slavery and the unnatural state that all involved are subjected to. DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ words give the reader a depiction of southern life and morality in an intricate and intriguing way, which is fair and abrasively honest. In modern times, people think of slavery and think that it was north against south. In reality, many Northerners were indifferent to the plight of slaves. When Fredrick Douglass first escapes to the north, he finds that there are many people who support slavery and many that oppose it, but most of them are indifferent. This is because most northerners have no idea what is going on in the south. Therefore, they are ignorantly blissful with their lives. Douglass addressed this issue in letter to an abolitionist associate. Douglass moved to New Bedford in the year 1838 and found work as a caulker for whaling ships. In New Bedford, he decided to drop the name Ã¢â¬Å"Bailey,Ã¢â¬ in order to defend himself from slave catchers, and became famous as Frederick Douglass. Between the time of 1790 and 1860, the institution of slavery declined in Baltimore but the boundaries of African-American freedom narrowed significantly. When free black people posed little threat to white people, as in the 1790s, whites imposed relatively few limitations on them. But as the free black population grew so did racial competition for jobs and social power. White privilege responded to the dynamism of free blacks by circumscribing their liberty. Douglass lived in Baltimore when free African Americans made considerable economic gains and expanded an already powerful network of black institutions. By the time of the Civil War whites rolled back many of the gains of the 1830s and pushed free blacks to the edge of slavery. Douglass first witnessed white racism towards free black people during this tightening of BaltimoreÃ¢â¬â¢s restrictions on non-slave African Americans that coincided with slaveryÃ¢â¬â¢s end. Work cited Browne, Gary Lawson. Baltimore in the Nation, 1789-1861. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980. Douglass, Frederick. Letter to an abolitionist associate. In Organizing for Social Change: A Mandate for Activity in the 1990s. Edited by K. Bobo, J. Kendall, and S. Max. Washington, D. C. : Seven Locks Press.  (1991) Douglass, Frederick. Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. 1892. New York: Collier, 1962. Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. 1855. New York: Dover, 1969. Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. 1845. New York: Penguin, 1968. Fields, Barbara Jeanne. Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground: Maryland during the Nineteenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. Frey, Sylvia. Water from the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991. Gardner, Bettye. Ã¢â¬Å"Ante-bellum Black Education in Baltimore. Ã¢â¬ Maryland Historical Magazine 71 (Fall 1976): 360-366. Gardner, Bettye. Ã¢â¬Å"Free Blacks in Baltimore, 1800-1860. Ã¢â¬ Diss. George Washington University, 1974. Garonzik, Joseph. Ã¢â¬Å"Urbanization and the Black Population of Baltimore, 1850-1870. Ã¢â¬ Diss. State University of New York, Stony Brook, 1974. Graham, Leroy. Baltimore: The Nineteenth-Century Black Capital. New York: University Press of America, 1982. Maryland. House of Delegates. Ã¢â¬Å"An Act Relating to Paupers, Beggars, Vagrants, Vagabonds and Disorderly Persons in the City of Baltimore. Ã¢â¬ The Laws of Maryland ch. 116. March 10, 1854. Muller, Edward K. and Paul A. Groves. Ã¢â¬Å"The Emergence of Industrial Districts in Mid-Nineteenth Century Baltimore. Ã¢â¬ Geographical Review 69 (1979): 159-177. Steffen, Charles G. The Mechanics of Baltimore: Workers and Politics in the Age of Revolution, 1763-1812. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984. Wesley, Charles H. Richard Allen: Apostle of Freedom. 1935. Washington: Associated Publishers, 1969.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the world is unique, conflicted by emotions and heavily influenced by their surroundings, thus giving individuals a distinct interpretation of how distinctive experiences convey meaning. The play Ã¢â¬Å"the Shoehorn SonataÃ¢â¬ composed by John Misto in which he explores distinctive experiences highlighting themes and memories, evidently both characters Bridie and Sheila overcame themes of adversity, captivity, human rights and ultimately friendship through embracing their experiences.MistoÃ¢â¬â¢s main focus was to bring forth awareness for the nurses through distinctive experiences. John Misto cleverly instigates aspects of lack of freedom via bringing forth past experiences involved in shaping the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s state of mind. Moreover Misto explores the theme captivity and notions of lack of human rights through BridieÃ¢â¬â¢s traumatic war experiences, Ã¢â¬Å"Filthy pits-dug out in the open. We werenÃ¢â¬â¢t allowed privacyÃ¢â¬ , a basic human right stripped away by the Japanese in which Misto used the pits-dug out to symbolise lack of freedom.Furthermore BridieÃ¢â¬â¢s past experiences introduced via anecdotes evoked past emotions of hatred and fear amongst the Japanese when situated near them, Ã¢â¬Å"Bus load of Japanese touristsÃ¢â¬ ¦ surrounded me, my heart began to pound in terrorÃ¢â¬ , BridieÃ¢â¬â¢s past experiences manipulated her state of mind, this is evident in BridieÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of harmless Japanese tourists. More so MistoÃ¢â¬â¢s utilisation of hyperbole, Ã¢â¬Å"pound in terrorÃ¢â¬ while facing the audience, Bridie broke the fourth wall as a result it displayed BridieÃ¢â¬â¢s fragile condition allowing the audience to sympathise for Bridie.This notion further reinforced by the incorporation of juxtaposition contrasting past experiences within the camp to her response while surrounded by harmless Japanese tourists 50 years later. Additionally, MistoÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose was to bring light to the lack of awareness of the nurses to ensure they received recognition for the events theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve endured. Throughout the play MistoÃ¢â¬â¢s input of projections of war atrocities reinforce Bridie and SheilaÃ¢â¬â¢s anecdotes of pain and hardship.In addition this not only reinforces the distinctively visual that are being perceived through the dialogue but as well concrete images Misto utilises in conjunction to the abstract stories to reflect the period Bridie and Sheila was in the camp. In particular MistoÃ¢â¬â¢s application of symbolism in scenes 13 creates emphasis on the diaries; Ã¢â¬Å"those diaries were our only hopeÃ¢â¬ . A piece of history that re-tell the events which occurred during WWII in the Japanese camps were burned byBritish, Misto ideally wanted this scene to be acknowledged by audience in order for them to understand SheilaÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. It was apparent the British did not want the events that impacted the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives to be know n, as they would be considered a shame to the empire. Furthermore it is transparent that the BritishÃ¢â¬â¢s response to burn the diaries affected SheilaÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to stay in Perth instead of moving back to her homeland, this notion of staying in Australia is strongly juxtaposed as Sheila is patriotic Ã¢â¬Å"one never stops being British. Nor does one not want to. Ã¢â¬