Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Medication adherence with clients with schizophrenia Essay

Medication adherence with clients with schizophrenia - Essay Example The prevalence of medication non-adherence has been reported to be almost half of the total population of patients with schizophrenia (Tabor & Lopez, 2004). The prevalence could even be higher considering that the figures do not count patient with schizophrenia who decline treatment or quit routine check-up. Hence, a frequent cause of treatment failure is medication non-adherence, and the most widespread kind of non-adherence is inadequate use of these drugs. The consequences of non-adherence involve disruption of work activities and home life, re-hospitalization, and recurrence of psychotic symptoms. Monitoring adherence to medications and evaluating side effects is an important medical task when caring for patients with schizophrenia (Higashi et al., 2013). This essay reviews the literature on medication adherence and non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia. Determinants of non-adherence to medication can be classified into four, namely, patient-based aspects (e.g. gender, age , income, education), health-based aspects (e.g. substance abuse, duration of ailment, symptomatology), aspects related to antipsychotic medication, and socio-environmental aspects (e.g. social support, relationship between healthcare provider and patient). The literature review of Higashi and colleagues (2013) explains that there are numerous studies that investigated the correlation between socio-demographic factors (e.g. gender, age, education) and medication non-adherence but discovered no consistent relationship. There are findings revealing that adolescents are less likely to adhere to medication than their older counterparts. Several studies have discovered no relationship between gender and non-adherence, but some researchers, like Tunnicliffe and associates (1992 as cited in Higashi et al., 2013), discovered that females have a greater tendency than males to adhere to anti-psychotic medication. It has also been reported that certain ethnic minority groups, such as African A mericans, tend to be noncompliant. But there are other researchers, such as Owen and colleagues (1996 as cited in Higashi et al., 2013), who found no correlation between ethnicity and medication non-adherence. The researchers conclude that almost all studies report little or no correlation between socio-demographic factors and medication adherence. Lack of insight is a major attribute of individuals with schizophrenia. It is easy to understand why individuals with poor awareness have showed a greater risk for noncompliance to medication. There is no definite explanation of awareness in psychotherapy, but usually, it means understanding of one’s sickness and its outcomes or effects (Kozuki & Froelicher, 2003). Rusch and Corrigan (2002) enumerate four features of awareness: cognitive features, adherence based features, symptom based features, and temporal features. Lack of awareness has major therapeutic, clinical, and social significance. Nevertheless, its repercussions on med ication adherence are most vital in the recovery period of schizophrenia. The patient’s extent of awareness of the disorder is directly associated with his/her attitudes toward or beliefs about the treatment. Rusch and Corrigan (2002) found out that psychological coping mechanism and neurocognitive problems may worsen lack of awareness. They also discovered that awareness predicted adherence to psychosocial therapies for

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