Sunday, December 30, 2018

Ap European History Reading Questions-Chapter 15

1. The upmost distinguished crusade for economic and affable problems that troublight-emitting diode atomic number 63 from 1560 to 1650 was an incredible inflation among other things. The Spanish empire brought tons of gold hold up to europium and caused the value of gold to plummet. Since this was a situation that Europe had never experienced, they didnt picture it. More gold was supposed to be good, right? Suddenly prices started to rise for no reason. Also in Spain, un manage gold, on that point was very little silver world produced at the beat and therefore bandit attacks began to take place.Other problems facing Europe during this condemnation include, population decline, plague, economic strugglefargon, and famine. As a result of in all these problems, social strain was greatly increased, all involved with a crisis at hand. 2. Although initially caused by ghostly issues, by the mid 1630s the Thirty long measure War had become a dynastic conflict between two Cat holic index numbers France and the Hapsburgs. As the Battle of the Boyne and the Jacobite risings the 15 and the 45 in Scotland were directly linked to religious ideas that the TYW was the hold water religious fight in Europe are therefore mis taken.Really, a much accurate name for the Thirty years War would be, The first newfangled fight would be more(prenominal) accurate. New t actuateics, deploy man origints, equip workforcet and methods were introduced in European armies which were widely adopted indoors a decade by almost all armies and all further developed oer the next few decades. 3. The Military whirling refers to a radical transfigure in military strategy and tactics with resulting study variety shows in g all overnment. The concept was introduced by Michael Roberts in the 1950s as he focused on Sweden 15601660 searching for major changes in the European way of war caused by introduction of portable firearms.Roberts linked military technology with larger his torical consequences, literary argument that innovations in tactics, drill and doctrine by the Dutch and Swedes 15601660, which maximized the utility of firearms, led to a need for more trained force and thus for long-lived forces. These changes in discharge had major semipolitical consequences in the take aim of administrative support and the supply of money, men and provisions, producing unexampled financial demands and the installation of new judicatureal institutions. Thus, argued Roberts, the modern art of war made possible and necessary the creation of the modern state. 4. Women were viewed as being spiritually weaker than men, and more susceptible to demonic process, and this meant that women tended to be suspected of being witches much more often than men. However, this was not a reproducible pattern found throughout Europe. In some regions, there were more men convicted of witchcraft than women, in the Lorraine region of France for example, and in Iceland, whe re the overwhelming majority of convictions were of men.Overall though, about 75% of those executed for witchcraft were women. So last what this suggests about women in the 16th and seventeenth centuries is that women were not nearly as important as men in familiarity during this time. 5. Absolutism pertains to an absolutist state, where all creator, or sovereignty is made in the ruler. These rulers claimed to bring in divine right, meaning they ruled by the grace of God and were responsible exclusively to God. However, these absolute monarchs respected the basic laws of the land.They workled recreate groups within their territories and created bureaucracies as well, in which the offices held earthly concern/state positions, directing the economy to the win of the baron. Absolute monarchs as well kept permanent standing armies and created new methods of compulsion. Louis 14 of France was an in-your-face expansionist. He followed in the footsteps of Cardinal Richelieu in that aspect. His foreign policies were mainly against the Habsburg dynastys power and the self- ordain of French-speaking territories by nations other than France.Hence, his foreign policies included many an(prenominal) wars. He took over the Spanish Netherlands and some of the United Provinces of Holland, and Franche-Comte. However, his combative advances caused alliances to be formed against him which included the Habsburg domains of Spain and the situate apart Roman Empire, England, and Holland in all of their incarnations. Eventually, Louis XIV could not defeat the alliances, and some acquired territories were lose again in treaties, even French colonies. 6.The reign of Peter the Great pronounced the emergence of a decisive Russian influence in European affairs, an influence that would last into the twenty-first century. It was Peter who inaugurated modern Russias vigorous and aggressive foreign constitution against its three neighboring states, Sweden, Poland, and the Ottoman Empire. by means of the Great Northern War (1700-1721), he decisively broke Swedens supremacy in the Baltic, while his wars against the Ottoman Turks and his interference in the internal affairs of Poland set precedents that resultantly Russian rulers would follow in subsequent decades.These great strides made by Russia in atomic number 99ern Europe were to a broad extent the result of Peters extensive computer programme of reforms, which touched all facets of Russian life. 7. Although it whitethorn sound strange, it was Napoleon who was majorly responsible for the geological fault of Brandenburg-Prussia. Napoleon invaded half of Europe and also the most German states. Only East Prussia remained free and became the leader in the Befreiungskrieg (Freedom war) against France. It was this war against Napoleon 1812-1815 that created a harsh German home(a) feeling.This transformation is still diaphanous in modern society of Germany today. 8. In the later fifteenth centu ry- the period of the refoundation of the heyday, in Sir Johns Fortescues phrase- there was a marked change in the structure of politics and wherefore in the nature and role of religious order also a politics of many centres became a politics of one. To begin with, in the feebly strange grasp of atomic number 1 IV the monarchy had descended into being one portentous occurrenceion among many- and not necessarily the strongest.The fact became manifest from 1456 when the King abandoned the government of the kingdom the court withdrew from London to banishment in the heart of the Lancastrian lands, and the national revenues were diverted from the Exchequer and used directly- like the income of any other lord- to concede for the imperial household and the royal retainers. Henry was instantaneously only effectively Duke of Lancaster and he was briefly to loose that. 9. The main issue was a disagreement between the king and parliament about who had crowning(prenominal) politic al power.King Charles believed in Divine Right, the idea that he was king because God wanted him to be. Further, as the kings power was God given, no earthly power or person could justly pack it from him. parliament saw themselves as the select representatives of the People and therefore believed they should consecrate ultimate political authority, even over the king. Thus, when Charles involve money, Parliament would refuse to cooperate unless Charles turn to alleged abuses of his power first. This always led to political deadlock, and eventually to civil war.Puritans took control of Parliaments war effort during the First side Civil War, and by 1646 and the end of the war extreme Puritans cognise as Independents had taken control of the military, The NMA. Using the NMA as his power base, Oliver Cromwell was able to intimidate Parliament into the death penalty of Charles I, The abolition of the Monarchy, and the establishment of the Commonwealth. The main change was that, o n the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660, Parliament ensured that the King had a guaranteed annual income that was becoming both to live off his own, and pay for the ordinary expenses of state and expenses. 10.The Dutch Republic, formally known as the Republic of the seven United Netherlands, the Republic of the United Netherlands, or the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, was a republic in Europe subsisting from 1581 to 1795, preceding the Batavian Republic, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and at last the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands. Alternative name calling include the United Provinces Federated Dutch Provinces and Dutch Federation. 11. Art reflected the political and social life of the second half of the seventeenth century primarily through mannerism, which reflected milieu attempt to break down reincarnation principles.Baroque however, reflected search for power and just the will to control all people during that time. Then, literary productions reflecte d political and social life during this time through writing research on a new type of stage, known as the golden stage of literature. publications was a major component of this time period also in that in was an era of many great dramas and playwrights such as the still-praised today, William Shakespeare. 12. Forms of monarchy differ widely found on the level of legal self-sufficiency the monarch holds in governance, the method of natural selection of the monarch, and any predetermined limits on the duration of their tenure.When the monarch has no or few legal restraints in state and political matters, it is called an absolute monarchy and is a form of autocracy. Cases in which the monarchs discretion is formally limited (most common today) are called constitutional monarchies. In catching monarchies, the office is passed through inheritance within a family group, whereas elective monarchies are selected by some system of voting. Historically these systems are most commonly combined, either formally or informally, in some manner. For instance, in some elected monarchies only those of authoritative pedigrees are considered eligible, whereas many hereditary monarchies have legal requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, and other factors that act both as de facto elections and to create situations of agree claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. ) Finally, there are situations in which the expiration of a monarchs reign is set based either on the calendar or on the achievement of definite goals (repulse of invasion, for instance. )

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