Friday, April 5, 2019
Comparison Of Two Learning Theories Education Essay
comparison Of Two Learning Theories Education EssayLearning is a persisting changes in performance or performance potential that result from experience and interaction with the world (Driscoll, 2000, p.3). The way we process development is as individual as our genetic makeup, just now research has shown that there be many disparate types of attainment theories subprogram for classroom education. (Merriam, Caff arlla, Baumgartner, 2007 Weimer, 2002 Steiner, Floyd, Hewett, Lewis, Walker, 2010). The theories of behaviourist and cognitivist are important to compare because they are a part of the introductory foundations in which other acquire theories have been formed. In order to apply learning theories to nursing practice, the wish to understand the basis of different theories is important. Theories have been researched and tested and have some(prenominal) importance as to how intimacys cash in one(a)s chips across different situations and circumstances. Theories can giv e some consistent ways of looking at classroom practice and some rational explanations for what happens within the class.PhilosophyBehaviorism is primarily alludeed with observable and mensural aspects of human carriage. In defining style, airist learning theories emphasize changes in behavior that result from stimulus- receipt associations make by the learner. Behavior is directed by stimuli. An individual selects one reply instead of a nonher because of earlier learn and psychological drives existing at the moment of the action (Parkay Hass, 2000). In education, this type of learning travel into the settle with/punishment category. The rewards must be important to the learner in order to give the inducement to respond favorably.Cognitive science began a move from behavioristic practices which emphasized external behavior, to a concern with the internal mental processes of the mind and how they could be utilized in promoting effective learning. The models that had been developed in the behaviorist tradition were not disregarded, but instead the task analysis and learner analysis parts of the models were elaborated on. Cognitivism is based on the thought process behind the observations. Changes in behavior are detected and sensed to be an indicator of what was happening inside the mind. The new models addressed component processes of learning such as knowledge coding and representation, entropy storage and retrieval as well as the incorporation and desegregation of new knowledge with previous study. (Saettler, 1990)Origins and AuthorsThe foundation of Behaviorism, trace its roots to the early part of the 20th century. This was during a time when many psychologists emphasized self-analysis of mental processes (introspection) or the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud. In contrast, researchers comparable Ivan Pavlov, began to develop a framework which emphasized observable processes (environmental stimuli and behavioral responses). (Kentridg e, 2007) Originators and important contributors to behaviorism believed that learning is curb to observational and measurable behavior. The two major schools of thought are based on ideas from Pavlov who showed classical teach and Skinner who believed in operant conditioning.One of the most famous experiments on classical conditioning is from Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). Pavlov originally was doing an experiment regarding the social occasion of salivation in digestion. From his observations, Pavlov noticed when his assistant brought meat into the laboratory the dogs being apply for in this experiment would automatically start to salivate. Further research into this phenomenon formed the famous Pavlovs stimulus and response experiment, known now as classic conditioning. Classic conditioning is a four-step learning procedure involving reflexes. (Fig. 1)http//www.simplypsychology.org/pavlov.htmlFig. 1 Pavlovs Dog ExperimentDuring classical (or Pavlovian) condition ing, human and animal subjects change the magnitude and timing of their conditioned response (CR), as a result of the contingency between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). Whereas in classical conditioning, the US and the CS determine the form of the CR, in operant conditioning the strength and frequency, but not the form, of the response is independent of the US.(Schmajuk, 2007)B.F. Skinner (1974) coined the term operant conditioning it means roughly changing of behavior by the use of strengthener which is given after the desired response. Skinner place threesome types of responses or operant that can follow behavior. Skinner believed that we do have such a thing as a mind, but that it is simply more productive to study observable behavior preferably than internal mental events. In essence, Skinner believed we are what we have been reinforced for being (Olson Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 76). Operant conditioning has been widely applied in clinical se ttings (i.e., behavior modification) as well as teaching (i.e., classroom management) and instructional development (e.g., programmed instruction). This theory states that when learning is rewarded, behavior is perpetuated or maintained, while punished behavior is removed. In the classic experiment of Skinner Box, a rat may receive a food reward every time he presses the bar. He presses faster and faster. (Fig 2).http//www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.htmlFig. 2 Skinners Rat BoxThe major techniques used in operant conditioning arePositive reinforcement increasing a behavior by administering a reward.Negative reinforcement increasing a behavior by removing an aversive stimulus when a behavior occursPunishment lessen a behavior by administering an aversive stimulusExtinction decreasing a behavior by not rewarding it.Albert Bandura thought Skinners theories were too simplistic although he in any case believed many of the psychological constructs of previous psycholog ical thought were far too laid back, and were neither problem-solving nor action-oriented (Bandura, 1997). He believed in reciprocal determinism, that is, the world and a persons behavior cause each other, while behaviorism basically states that ones environment causes ones behavior, Bandura, who was studying adolescent aggression, found this too simplistic, and so in addition he suggested that behavior causes environment as well. Later, Bandura soon considered personality as an interaction between three components the environment, behavior, and ones psychological processes (ones world power to entertain images in minds and language). (Bandura, 1997)Cognitivism considers the learner as an information processor, much like that of a computer. It believes that the black stripe of the mind should be opened and understood. The information comes in, is processed and leads to certain outcomes. The concept believed that people are not just like rats that respond to stimuli but quite a, they are rational thinking human beings that require active voice participation to learn. There are four major contributors to the Cognitivists theory.Howard Gardner believed that students learn in different ways. According to Gardner, we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, and the use of the body to bring problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences the so-called visibility of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, dissolve diverse problems, and progress in various domains. (Gardner, 1991)Fig. 3 -Multiple intelligencesRobert Gangne developed information processing theory identified eight levels of intellectual skills including signal, stimulus-response, chaining, verbal association, multiple discrim ination, concept formation, principle formation and problem solving. He also explained that there are five areas of learning outcomes verbal information intellectual skills cognitive strategies motor skills and attitudes.www.classweb.gmu.eduFig. 4-Levels of scholarshipAllan Paivio discovered Dual coding theory that states people process information in two different ways processing of images and the processing of language.Fighttp//cslsrv.ice.ntnu.edu.tw/LabNews/Minutes01S/20010412joseph.htmFig. 5- Dual Coding TheoryBenjamin Bloom draw six levels of learning in his model of critical thinking. These levels are also known as Blooms Txaonomy. .http//taspd.edublogs.org/2007/04/23/revised-blooms-taxonomy/Fig. 6- Blooms TaxonomyLiterature ReviewThe two movements differ particularly in their views on behavior. Behaviorism, whose research subjects were mostly animals, views behavior as an irreducible consequence of environmental stimuli, whereas Cognitivism, whose research subjects are a lot humans, sees behavior as a point from which to abstract the mental processes behind the behavior.Skinners studies of operant behaviors have become very useful in the field of learning and cognition (Corey, 2009). Studies have shown that behavior can be conditioned by reinforcements, positively, which increases the probability of the behavior happening again, or negatively, which decreases the probability the behavior will happen again (Olson Hergenhahn, 2009). Skinners theories still carry on in wide use, helping users understand and control behaviors in many disciplines as well as in issues ranging from advertising to parenting (Olson Hergenhahn, 2009). According to Corey (2009), the research of Kazdin (2001) and Spiegler Guevremont (2003) revealed that behavioral therapy is generally as effective as option therapies, and in some instances, more effective.The Cognitive Learning Theory supports the idea that learning includes different kinds of memories, need and thinking . One of the other important factors is that of reflection. Those that promote Cognitivsm believe that the learning process is internal and depends on memorized information from pre-existing knowledge. (Ausubel, 1974) The theory argues that the degree of which a person learns is not affected by the ability and graphic symbol of mental processing. (Craik Tulving, 1975 Craik Tulving, 1975) Cognitivism maintains that memory is stored by using a connective pattern of information that networks with other patterns by means of some type of a relationship. (Stoyanova Kommers, 2002)Use in Nursing EducationWriting behavioral-based instructional objectives seems to specify clear, measurable terms to assist learners. According to Morrison (2001), behavior based objectives become the end rather than the means for instruction. Morrison continues to point out that cognitive focused instructional objectives overcome this problem by eldest stating a general objective to communicate the intent. Additionally, they observe that cognitive objectives are well suited for describing higher(prenominal) levels of learning. (Morrison et al., 2001, p. 97)In behaviorism, the learner is actively involved in learning, practicing, and demonstrating new behaviors and is extremely dependent on receiving feedback from the pedagog. The educator is responsible for identifying behavioral outcomes, controlling the environment, and providing feedback. Current use of behaviorism in education is most often associated with education and training (Merriam et al., 2007). Behaviorism does well in education because itpromotes good behavior and recognizes that unwanted behavior has consequences. Students learn by observing and interpreting the behavior, and associated consequences, of others in a process termed vicarious reinforcement or modeling (Bandura, 1977). Learning by modeling involves a complex process of interpreting, coding, and retaining the information for future application, past engagin g in the modeled behavior (Bandura, 1969).Cognitivists have influenced educational strategies by including prior knowledge in influencing how new information is digested. Cognitive learning theorists believe that learning is an internal process in which information is integrated or internalized into ones cognitive or intellectual structure. Learning occurs through internal processing of information. From the cognitive viewpoint, how new information is presented is important. In the first or cognitive phase of learning, the student learns the overall drawing of what the task is and the sequences involved. In the second, or fixation learning phase, the learner begins to gain skill in do the task. In the last phase of learning, the automatic phase, the student gains increasing confidence and competence in do the task. (Elias et al., 1984)Personal UseI believe that we all use a part of the behaviorists way of learning, to some extent. We all like to be awarded for the work or behavio r that we have accomplished. We know there are repercussions and consequences for not adhering to the rules. Our behaviors represent how we are perceived by others in society. The determination of how others behave is by the use of checks and balances of stimuli and response. The way we act and/or behave, teaches people how to respond to us. I believe that I am incite to learn and acquire more knowledge. The ability to mentally organize, rehearse and comprehend new learning materials is one I strive to obtain.The motivation that has driven me to succeed in both by personal and master key lives has been founded on realistic and challenging goals.ConclusionThere are many different ways of learning and teaching. Two of the earliest methods of learning can still utilized in todays classroom. The foundation of theories helps us as a framework to base our learning and teaching upon. We can use positive and negative reinforcement as well as modeling to teach our students how to absorb an d maintain new materials. Behaviorism is a teacher based concept full of structure and rules. Examples are class lectures, note taking and role modeling. Cognitivist used a student based concept in which students can find out information by themselves by using case studies, research and discussions. These two types of learning theories can help to constellation our future generations.